How is causation distinguished from correlation in statistics?

Causation cannot be established solely through statistics, much less just correlation.,First, even if there is causation, correlation can't say which direction it goes in. Income is correlated with income tax paid. But, statistically, it could be that paying more taxes makes your income go up! ,Second, correlation can happen with no causation whats

What do you eat for breakfast on Christmas Day?

I usually serve blinis with sour cream and caviar or smoked salmon alongside glasses of crisp, cold bubbles. These can be nibbled on whilst presents are exchanged and donu2019t fill people up ahead of lunch.

How can I make chicken gravy?

Depending on how much you want to make and how thick you want it your basic ingredients will be:,A fat,Butter,Oil,Rendered fat,Flour,And chicken stock,Plus drippings or renderings from a roast chicken.,Fat and flour should be equal amount by weight and cooked until golden,***side not if you don't want to measure add enough flour to make your roux (

Does New Zealand belong to the Australian continent?

Yes! That is why they are the same colour on a political map. They also have exactly the same accent and drive on the same side of the road. They are right next to each other, hence they are the same country.,Australia has the same flag and even has the same head of state as New Zealand. Both Australia and New Zealand share sports and are involved

What is the size of the tourism car rental market segment?

Depends on the company. For some companies--Dollar, Thrifty, Budget, Alamo--it's a high proportion. For others--Hertz, Avis, National--it's less.,Someone with access to broad data on the travel industry as a whole can probably provide some more specific numbers, but in my experience, the value-branded agencies see probably two-thirds of their traff

What are examples of "special skills" for a job application?

Yes, it is. In my case the most relevant skill,was to get my neighbours together - some of them had long lasting heated disagreements and didnu2019t talk to each other. No one was paying for building maintenance, the managing agent left and I was in the middle of that mess with newly bought flat. So I talked to them, listened and the first achieve

In the state of Washington, is it legal to have a dash cam in your car?

Stephen Nicol has an excellent answer.,I live in Washington. I use a small form factor dash cam that has no external display. If I want to watch a video from the camera, I connect my iPhone to the camera via its built-in Wi-Fi, and either view the video directly on the phone or copy it to my phoneu2019s memory. The lack of an external display makes

Whatu2019s the most surprising place in Japan?

Difficult question. If you have never been to Japan, you will find surprises around every corner! For example, my two kids were delighted at the variety of choices and unknown items in the local convenience store. My daughter made videos of trying random candy, foods, drinks etc. so every day was a surprise.,The same is true about alleys in Japanes

What if World War 2 was capitalism vs. communism?

Rather a one sided war - you cannot show me any u201ccapitalistsu201d in that war, so there was no capitalism to fight, or be fought.,The main battle, in Russia, was between revolutionary international socialism-the USSR (though I think Stalin had to back down to the idea of u201cSocialism in one countryu201d - and fight a u201cGreat Patriotic Waru

Can recycled plastics be used to construct side walks and fences?

There are many fencing products being made from recycled plastics. There is also many flooring products made from recycled plastics.,I donu2019t know about its suitability for sidewalks. One factor is that most plastics have rather large dimensional change with temperature. That could result in undesirable buckling. Plastics also are low density, s

What should every foreigner know about your country in terms of food, tourist destinations, demography, best time to visit, and USP of your country?

Philippines: There's Beauty in Chaos.n1) The Philippines is an archipelago with 7,107 islands. Less than 15% of these islands are populated. From the map, it looks like a dog sitting down.,,n2) The Philippines was colonized by the Spaniards for a whopping 377 years from 1521 to 1898. The country was then taken over by the Americans for only 48 year

Would it help to replace the term "atheist" with nullifidian? Its a combination of u201cnullifyu201d and u201cobsidian,u201d leaving us with a bleak picture of black nothingness. It was once considered a good alternative.

No, it would not help to replace atheist with nullifidian.,The terms atheist and nullifidian are not synonymous.nullifidian | Definition of nullifidian in English by Oxford Dictionaries says:,A person having no faith or religious belief.,atheist | Definition of atheist in English by Oxford Dictionaries says:,A person who disbelieves or lacks belief

Why was the Indian Ocean named after India?

Question:nWhy was the Indian Ocean named after India?When the Silk Route (shown in Red in below figure) was blocked by the Ottoman Empire, the Europeans were in search of a sea-route to India and China. By that time, the maritime trade in south Asia had been very well established over the course of a few millennia. The route shown in blue was the s

What food is popular in your country, but unacceptable in other countries?

Iu2019m from Jamaica and we have a lot of delicacies here that I donu2019t think would be considered conventional in other countries. Here are some of our stranger delicacies :,Mannish water - Despite what the name might suggest, itu2019s not actually water. Instead, it is a soup that is cooked with scotch bonnet pepper and various boiled parts of

How do I crop a picture in Windows 7?

The easiest way by far is to download one of the many free image editors and use that. In all honesty I cannot remember what Win 7 has built into it so a third party app is what I would recommend. They all allow for image cropping.

How far is Los Angeles from Beverly Hills?

Beverly Hills is essentially inside Los Angeles, which surrounds it on all four sides:,map beverly hills los angelesNote: West Hollywood is also an independent city (like Beverly Hills). So, technically a few miles of Beverly Hillsu2019 Northeast side is West Hollywood adjacent. Drive a few miles to Santa Monica and La Brea and youu2019re in LA.

How do you change an IP address on an Android?

I am assuming you mean change the IP on the wireless connection as changing the IP your carrier gives you is not possible.,Well, Rod Young posted the video I was going to; so instead, you can find the option via the following:nSettings -> Select the Wifi Network (long press) -> Modify Network -> Advanced Options -> IP Settings changed t

What are some table manners and dining etiquette that everyone should know about?

Here are few dining table manners in my knowledge:,Place your napkin in your lap (while eating),Fold your used napkin and place it to the left of your place setting, donu2019t leave it scrunched and messy. (post eating),Avoid speaking with mouth full of food (or say, while chewing or eating),Try keeping your elbows off the table.,While having soup

What are some of the best ways to cook fries in the oven?

The best way is to get a tray that allows air to circulate. Theyu2019re not expensive. I got mine at a dollar store for like $4.,You can cook them on a cookie sheet, but if you do you will have to flip them over halfway during cooking, and in any case they will cook unevenly on the side that lies on the pan. More holes is better.,Place the fries fl

What misconception about your occupation would you like to clear up?

Doctors are very misunderstood people.Dr Chloe Abbott, 29, who took her own life in January this year, after her sister begged her to leave the profession.,,Dr John Moutzouris, 38, who committed suicide in January this year as well.,,Dr Ronak Patel, 33, died in car accident after falling asleep at the wheel while singing to his wife on a hands-free

How can I get some illusion photographs, is there any key receipe for it?

First of all observe your subject closely! See how you can improvise the conventional ways of photographing!,Trick photography is used to create illusions that can captivate the people looking by adding special effects to normal everyday scenes. It makes the scenes look exceptional by making it more attractive. Even if you donu2019t want to use tri

What is the best furniture layout in small living room?

Small Living Room!Small living rooms always needs special attention while planning. Dediner simply cannot eliminate anything even if it is a small living room. Every furniture should be poaitioned well for better movement and usability.,What are basic furnitures kept in living room?A) Sofa (3 seater, 6 seater, 8 seater, X seater depending upon requ

How much does it cost to reupholster a 1976 VW Beetle?

What does it cost to re-upholster a 1976 VW Beetle?,Dunno. Are you going back to factory? Are you looking for an upgrade? Are you going to do the work? Are you going to have it done??,The VW aftermarket is literally full of options.,Full original u201cbasket-weaveu201d original equivalent replacement kits start at about $650. You will likely need n