Which wave has the highest frequency
The electromagnetic spectrum is loosely but effectively defined by bands (ranges) of frequencies.
The highest frequency band (aka smallest wavelength) are gamma rays.
Two waves having the same amplitude and the same frequency pass simultaneously
Yes!u2026 and nou2026 and yes and no at the same time.
,Frequency is the measure of how many times in a second something exhibits periodic behavior.
,Period is the amount of time that the something takes to get from one recognizable point in one repetition to the next identical point in the next repetion.
,Velocity describes both the speed and direction of something that is moving, and when it describes the motion if a vibrating object or field, the distance travelled in time allows periodic vibration to establish the wavelength of the period.
,Here we can get tricksey, and say that two waves traveling descrete through the same material medium which is uniform in temperature, pressure, and mass throughout (i.
, constant density) with the same frequency and in the same direction will exhibit the same wavelength.
However, if they are traveling, descretely, in the opposite direction from each other, they will have opposite signs, making their wavelengths mathematically different (opposite signs).
As I said, were being tricksey: both are arguably the same distance from, say, peak to peak, but only if we stop time and break velocity.
Are we being bad by identifying the absolute length but ignoring direction, or by ignoring that the absolute length is in different directions? Neither: both are true, and simultaneously not.
,This can extend further into mathematical realms: we measure length, not directly, but by various methods which largely devolve to two methods:,Projecting two points (end points or,in the case of vibrations, endpoints of the period) by parallel lines which we u201cconstructu201d (so they are perfectly parallel, perfectly thin, and thus dont really exist) to a nearby length-ruled and numbered device.
,Counting time between endpoints as they pass by and doing math.
(This is just as indirect as comparing to the ruled rod, as we count time by relying on our innate sense of rhythm, or with time pieces which substitute some kind of motion in a regulated fashion, or, in fact, measuring frequencies of phenomena which were pretty darn sure are constant and consistent, like the vibration of the rest state of Cesium, used for the fundamental Time/Frequency standard.
),Neither measures of length address multi-dimensional concerns.
Two completely identical periodic waves, at angles to each other, seen from any third vantage point will show differing wavelengths to a third-point observer, unless the observer is exactly perpendicular to the plane occupied by the two vectors of travel, which, statistically, is pretty unlikely.
If we use one of the lines of travel as a reference and project parallel perpindicular lines from another line of travel at the end points of its period, they will cross the reference line at a different distance than its own period because of the angle between them.
,So method of measurement provides a second way that the wavelengths can be identical while being u201cincommensuralu201d, i.
, not measuring the same.
This is why multi-dimensional math becomes complicated, and why some of our most beautifully-simple equations are representative of amazingly complex relations and vice versa.
(Prime example, here, is Eulers equation, which connects the exponential called u201cnaturalu201d to the sum of the sine and cosine.
),Now we leave the artificial world if perfect consistencies, and focus on pure (the purest) of frequency and wavelength phenomena.
,The harmonic wave, described graphically as a sine wave, has no components other than itself, under Fourier analysis.
It is the motion described by a pendulum in a friction free, atmosphere paradigm: continuous smooth movement, driven by constant gravity, accelerating to the center point, passing through the center point without disturbing the smoothness of motion, decelerating to the endpoints, u201cpassing throughu201d zero speed and accelerating back to the center, again, with undisturbed smoothness of motion.
At the end points, there is no disjunctively in deceleration: it does not stop and start again so much as slowing smothely to that instantaneous zero, then accelerating in the opposite direction.
,This is, in fact, the simplest non-consensual motion in Physics, and am other kinds of motion without perfect disjunctions can be described by a set of harmonically related sines, where harmonically = integer multiples of the fundamental frequency.
Cosines! I hear you cry! But if you differentiate a cosine wave, the result is a cosine wave.
Differentiate again, and you get an inverse sine (the same as the starting wave flro, with a negative sign), differentiate again, get a negative cosine, one more time returns you to the original sine.
Each differentiation could be seen as shifting the sine-wave leftwards by a quarter-period, but with the same frequency and wavelength, and the same amplitude.
The Sine is fundamental to so many branches of physics and math that a good understanding of it is necessary to following almost every discussion.
,So in the real world, our discussion of the question requires two waves which are the same wavelength in every case from here on.
Sometimes, well discuss sound vibrations, sometimes light waves.
Light is part of the radio spectrum, travels as perturbations if fields (which it can create as it passes) in space.
Sound requires a medium to travel through.
,If we have two identically-sized blocks of the same medium, and inject the same-frequency signal into both of them, their wavelength will be the same in each medium, because their speed throu the two identical media will be the same.
So far, so good.
However, if the waves are physical (mechanical, if you prefer) vibration, and the blocks are made of different materials, the speed of the waves will be different within the media, and the same in the surrounding environment.
,The differing speed results in the vibration wave being longer in media where the vibrations move more quickly, and shorter where it moves more slowly.
If you were capable of hearing the wave in air, then in, say, a bar if steel, it would have a different pitch, which is how we perceive the frequency of vibrations.
Well revisit that later.
To perceive the difference, youd have to be very special: you would have to be able to turn to steel, have the steel reach your ear drum (so it can carry sound to your sensory apparatus, and you would have to have that elusive quality of hearing known as perfect pitch, so you could tell that that pitch you hear when in steel is different from when you are surrounded by air.
There is an easier way to show this, with different density air, with similar caveats to look for what is different between the situations: sing a note, or talk in your normal voice.
Then, inhale a lungfull of helium (which is what they put in floating balloons at the store to make them float) then repeat the note or speech.
The pitch will be higher, because the gas, helium, is much lighter, i.
, less dense, than air.
This can be repeated with Argonu2026 which is harder to get hold if, and far more dangerous to use.
Your voice will sound lower, because Argon is a heavier molecule, so more dense under gravity than air (mostly nitrogen and oxygen).
This is DANGEROUS: Argon is an inert gas, and will not hurt you by poisoning or corroding your tissues.
But being heavier than air, it will settle in your lungs, reducing the amount of ixygen-bearing air in your lungs, and you can suffocate to death while breathing normally! It is easy to save someone who makes this mistake: hold them upside down, and the Argon will fall out if them, and quickly be replaced with air.
But if the person who does this is a 400-lb physics professoru2026 good luck to you all.
,For light, we have to work with transparent media, because, while some materials are opaque to sound, far more are opaque to light.
But that is ok, because lights reaction to media, in slowing, or speeding up, is quite well known.
In fact, it is important enough that it is catalogued by lens glass makers, and easy to look up on line.
The speed of light in a glass is related to the speed of light in a vacuum, and atmospheric air on Earth at STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure) is close enough yo the speed of light in a vacuum that, for most purposes we can call both 1.
000, making the index of refraction 1.
00 for air.
It is called the index of refraction because light entering a glass object with smooth sides and no scratches will change its direction and speed.
The speed change comes from the light vibration having to pass from the field of each molecule to the next, and glass, being more dense than air, has many more molecules to pass through.
A very typical glass, BK7, has an index of refraction if 1.
5, meaning that light in air moves half-again as fast as in BK7 glass.
This slowdown at the surface has the effect of narrowing the waves length, i.
a beam of blue light at 660nm will compress to a wave of 440nm in BK7.
Looking at the glass, if there were impurities that made some of the light inside *leaku201d out of the glass, you would see the light as 660nm light (dark blood red), because, as the diverted light left the glass, it would speed up again, stretching back to its initial wavelength.
Again, if you could become one with the glass, you would see the compressed wave as blueu2026so long as the glass hugged your eyes as the air does.
)so long as the light hits a flat glass surface straight on, perpendicular to the flat surface, nothing else would change than the lights speed, and therefore, wavelength.
,But if the beam strikes the surface of the glass at an angle, the beam would be refracted, meaning its direction would change.
My optics teacher had a good analogy: picture the beam as an army, marching in ranks.
They are marching on asphalt, but their path takes them off the solid surface onto a bogus.
They cant March as fast, so each line slows as they go from marching on the solid surface.
As each rank uniformly slows, the distance between the ranks becomes shorter, exactly the kind of change caused by light entering glass, perpendicular to the surface.
,Now, if the army leaves the hard surface so the ranks are not parallel to the edge , each rank will turn, as those who have entered the big slow down, but those still on the tarmac continue at the faster speed.
The direction of March will turn (closer to the perpendicular to the edge) and the army will continue with the rank distances foreshortened, and the direction of March changed.
,Now we have the case where the same beam of light has a change of spacing in the denser medium which also changes the u201cspatial frequency making the wavelength shorter, but only within the medium.
So here, the two portions of the beam have changed both wave length and frequency, but are the same light.
,If they exit the glass through a surface that is parallel to the first surface, the light will speed up in the same manner it slowed on entry, and the beam will be reestablished as having the same frequency and wavelength.
If only some of the light from the beam enters the glass, the light inside the glass will have slower speed, shorter wavelength, but, arguably the same frequency as light outside the glass with the recognizeable points on the wave reaching the same point on the exit surface with the same time between them, but each of those points having taken longer to get there than the light that passed by the glass.
So the frequency in the glass is actually the same as the frequency outside of the glass, but the wavelength is shorter because the speed is slower.
The difference is that the arrival time of each wavefront the the glass will have taken longer to get there than its original brother wavefronts.
,Now, the really mind-bendy bit: we perceive pitch, not frequency.
We perceive it within our ear and brain.
The ear is a physical structure which reacts to sine vibrations in different areas, and transmits that information through a collection to the brain, which gets trained to recognize certain nerves as certain frequencies.
It is a nice, complex systemu2026and it can be changed by trauma, drugs, whether the sound comes from sit directly to the cochlea via the eardrum, or directly through other parts of the skull.
Most people never give this a thought, but it is likely that the nerves that tell you A440 is a different set from the nerves that speak up in your wifes head.
These matters of perception extend to your eyes, as well, so if you could throw a switch and trade minds with someone else, you might well perceive things to sound different pitches, or three their eyes, perceive a world of a different color!,So weve touched on the frequency and wavelength of identical bits of light being the same, different, and the same while being different, all of which happen all around you every day without anything out if the ordinary (like black holes, wormholes, amplitude cancellation, distortions, affects on perception caused by unrelated stresses or barely-related overdrive, distortion, or such).
And the answer, as frustrating as it might be, remains.
,Yesu2026nou2026and yes and no at the same time.
Which of the following waves have the same amplitude
In 1861 and 1862, a brilliant physicist named James Clerk Maxwell, who had studied with the legendary Michael Faraday, published a set of equations that finally linked electricity and magnetism in a systematic way,One of the first things that jumped out of the equations was that the ratio between electrical and magnetic forces was precisely equal to the speed of light, proving once and for all that visible light was linked to electricity and magnetism, tying all three together.
,The second thing that jumped out was that, in theory, you could detect u201celectro-magnetic wavesu201d at a distance.
,However, it wasnu2019t until 1879 that a German physicist, Heinrich Hertz, managed to prove this experimentally.
He had a spark generator on a table and he took a Leyden jar with a small gap between the poles as the spark generator.
As he moved the jar around the room, at times a small spark would form between the poles at the same time the spark generator generated a spark.
,But when asked about the practical applications of this discovery, Hertz said:,u201cIts of no use whatsoever.
This is just an experiment that proves Maestro Maxwell was rightu2014we just have these mysterious electromagnetic waves that we cannot see with the naked eye.
But they are there.
u201dHowever, in 1895, an Irish-Italian electrical engineer Guglielmo Marconi managed to send a Morse Code message 2 miles using the technique.
By 1901, he was able to reliably send signals from Ireland to Newfoundland.
,A few years later, Canadian Reginald Fessenden and American Lee De Forest were experimenting with voice and music transmission.
By the early 1920s, several u201cradio stationsu201d were broadcasting regular programming over u201camplitude modulationu201d,By the 1920s, American, Japanese and British engineers were transmitting video signals wirelessly.
By the 1940s, u201ctelevision stationsu201d had become widespread in the United Kingdom and the United States.
,In 1962, the United States government launched u201cTelstaru201d, which was capable of receiving and transmitting video signals anywhere within its footprint.
The following year, Syncom 2 was put into orbit, which sat in the same location and allowed television signals to be be transmitted between North America and Europe, allowing live events to be broadcast between the two continents.
,In 1983, Motorola marketed the DynaTac 800x, which was capable of connecting a telephone call as long as it was in range of a u201ccellular toweru201d and to keep the connection, even if it were in motion, as long as such a tower was in range.
,Between 1992 and 1996, Australian John Ou2019Sullivan and his colleagues developed a way to wirelessly transmit data in a secure fashion called u201cWiFiu201d.
In the visible light, which color has the longest wavelength
No - itu2019s the other end of the spectrumu2026red.
,Red light can be as long as 740 nanometers and still be visible - blue extends from 450 to about 500 nanometers.
,Low frequency = Long wavelength.
,High frequency = Short wavelength.
Same frequency different wavelength
Same frequency but different wavelengths is possible only if the wave speed is different.
This will be the case if:,The media are different,The waves are of a different type in the same medium, e.
in a bar longitudinal waves can exist, but torsional waves as well.
,u201cDifferent amplitudesu201d doesnu2019t require any explanation.