Where are the youngest rocks found in the seabed? Where are the oldest rocks found? Why?

Where are the oldest rocks found on the seafloor

This sounds like a homework questionu2026.

think plate tectonics, think convection.

Where is new seafloor formed? Mid-ocean ridges.

Where is seafloor destroyed? Subduction zones.

If your closest to the ridge youll see young rock, farthest from the ridge you see the oldest rock.

This is due to sea floor spreading, new rocks get made at ridges and older rocks are then pushed away from the ridge like a conveyer belt until it is eventually subducted.

That is why the oldest ocean rock is millions of years younger than the oldest continental rock, ocean rock is constantly made and later destroyed.

Which scientist found Earths oldest rocks

Bengaluru is one of the most popular historical and happening cities in India.

The city has a host of interesting and mind-blowing facts associated to it and most city-dwellers are unaware of these.

Go through some interesting facts about Namma Bengaluru!,1.

Origin of u2018Bangaloreu2019nBefore being changed to u2018Bengaluruu2019 as per the local dialect, Bangalore was known as Bengalvalu2013Uru, meaning u2018City of Guardsu2019.

There is another story that states the name originated from Hoysala king Veera Ballala, who when being fed boiled beans called the place u2018Benda-Kaal-Uru (land of boiled beans).


BangalorednNo, that is not the past tense of Bangalore, but a new word frequently used by the Americans, which refers to workers being laid off because their jobs have moved to Bangalore through IT Outsourcing.


Winston Churchill owes Rs.

13 to the Bangalore ClubnA ledger entry found in the book that was released on the 125th anniversary of the club states the former UK prime minister owes Rs.

13 as part of the unpaid bills at the club.

The Bangalore Club is considered to be one of the most elite clubs in the country and was started in 1868 by a group of British officers.


The logo of the Karnataka Golf Association has a crow and two eggs.

nThe logo was designed as per the fact that the crows mistake the golf balls as their eggs.

The Karnataka Golf Association course designed by Peter Thompson is a 18-hole championship course, with a club house of 30,000 sq.



The Victoria hospital was christened in the honour of the diamond jubilee of Queen VictorianThe foundation stone of Victoria Hospital, the century old premier Medical Institution of India, was laid on 22nd June 1897 by her highness Kempananjammani avaru, the then maharani regent of Mysore to commemorate the completion of 60 years of reign of Queen Victoria.

The hospital was then formally inaugurated on the 8th of December 1900 by Lord Curzon the then Viceroy of India.


Inventors of Rava IdlinDuring the Second World War, rice was in short supply and this made it difficult for MTR to make and distribute idlis.

MTR experimented with idlis to fulfill the public demand by using semolina instead of rice and thus the famous breakfast item was born u2013 Rava Idli!,7.

Malgudi DaysnR.


Narayanu2019s fictional Malgudi town was named after the old Malleswaram and Basavanagudi.

It is among the most popular readings that have Bangalore featured in it.


Oldest army regiments in the countrynBangalore has a rich history of housing many of Indiau2019s brave soldiers in some of the countryu2019s oldest regiments.

The Madras Engineering Group in Ulsoor has been in existence since the 1770s and the ASC College and Corps in Agara dates back to the 1860s.

Other regiments that have faded away in modern times include the once-famous cavalry units u2013 the Imperial Service Lancers and the Mysore Lancers, who were formed in 1892 as part of the Imperial Service Troops, and played an active role in the First World War.

There is a War Memorial dedicated to the martyrs in Jayamahal, near R T Nagar, that dates back to 1918.

,Photo Courtesy: lekhagrawal.



First electrified citynIn 1906, Bangalore became one of the first cities in India to have hydro-electric power, generated by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra.

A building in City Market was the honored recipient of electricity for the very first time.


Pub capital of IndianThe once u2018Garden Cityu2019 is now become the u2018Pub Capitalu2019 of India as well, due to disappearing gardens and the rise in many pubs and breweries.

Bangalore also records highest number of cigarette smokers in India.


Hub for BiotechnologynBangalore is the base for nearly 47% of the 265 biotechnology companies in India, including Biocon, Indiau2019s largest biotechnology company.

So, the city is not only just about IT companies.


Lalbagh-oldest rock formations on earthAt the heart of the city is the beautiful Lalbagh, which spreads an area of around 240-acres.

Apart from more than 1000 species of flora and fauna, Lalbagh is home to The Lal Bagh Rock, one of the oldest rock formations on earth, dating back to 3000 million years and many trees that are more than a century old.


Bangalore Torpedo (Explosive)Photo Courtesy: Online store specializing in 1:6th scale Action figures both Modern and Vintage.

Can you believe an explosive that is named after Bangalore!? The torpedo called the u2018Bangalore Torpedou2019 was ideated and manufactured in the city itself.

The torpedo was first devised by Captain McClintock, of the British Indian Army unit, the Madras Sappers and Miners at Bangalore in 1912.

He invented it as a means of exploding booby traps and barricades left over from the Boer and Russo-Japanese Wars.

,It has been featured in various well-known movies like Breakthrough, Saving Private Ryan, The Longest Day, Storming Juno, and The Big Red One.


Most Nobel Prize nominations in IndiaBangalore has produced the maximum number of scientists considered for Nobel Prize nominations from India.

,Sir CV Raman was associated with IISC Bangalore in 1930 and won the Nobel Prize in Physics.

Sir William Ramsey, who was associated with the creation of the Indian Institute of Science, was also related with Bangalore.


Freedom park was a JailnFreedom Park, located in Sheshadri Road, once functioned as the u2018Central Jailu2019.

When a state of emergency was proclaimed in India in 1975, several opposition leaders including Atal Bihari Vajpayee and L.


Advani were arrested and jailed at this venue.

The place also hosted the recent India against corruption.


u2018The World is Flatu2019 book describes BangalorenThomas L.

Friedmanu2019s much acclaimed book u2018The World is Flatu2019 starts with a description of the golf turf in Bangalore and then goes on to describe the world class setup of Infosys.

Even Steven Levyu2019s book u2018In the Plexu2019 (An amazing book about Google u2013 that everyone should read) begins with the mention of Bangalore.


CleanestnThink before disposing that empty chips packet or banana peel on the roads of Bangalore.

It is so far considered one of the cleanest cities in India.


Traffic in Bangalore has no comparisonnBangalore has the highest density of traffic in India.


Commercial and defense airport togethernThis is the only city in the world that has a commercial and defense airport operating from the same strip.


Maximum number of worship houses from all religionsnIt is the only Indian city that has the most number of worship houses for Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and Christians.


Highest engineers in a citynBangalore has 21 engineering colleges, the highest in any given city.

In addition, Bangalore University has 57 Engineering Colleges affiliated to it, which is again a record in itself.

Hence, there are more than a million IT professionals, most of them engineers residing in the city.

,Are there more interesting trivia about Bangalore city that you can share,Edit 1(2016)- my first answer to cross 1k viewsu2026 Thanks to all the viewers!,Edit2 (2016)- Now, commercial and defense Airport are separate.

,Edit 3(2016)- Now, mysore is the cleanest city - 2016,Edit 4 (22.


2019)- Point no.

19 - Pune is also one of the airports where commercial and defense flights use the same Airport!

How old are the oldest rocks on Earth

Peridotite, an ultrabasic rock composed mainly of the minerals olivine and pyroxene, rich in Mg (>30%) Fe (~10%) and low in Si (<45%).

,It has a similar composition to chondritic meteorites, implying that when these amalgamated to form planetoids, then ultimately the rocky planets, this is what the initial composition was.

,The mantle is still largely composed of this, and if you melt it and re-crystallize it, residual elements crystallize into lighter minerals dominated by more Si, plus Al, Ca, K and Na.

Do this repeatedly and the lighter u201cscum floats and accretes to form continents.

Oldest rock on Earth for sale

If you are bored and want to kill some time or if you want to gain some knowledge on Quora, do check the following list of some random little-known awesome facts I know.

You wont be disappointedu2026#1.

A book solely dedicated to womenThere is a book called u201cEverything Men know about Womenu201d that has just 120 blank pages.

It is considered to be one of the most honest books ever written!;-),Read the reviews here- Everything Men Know About Women#2.

The Deadliest Poison on EarthBotox is the worlds deadliest poison! One gram of this substance, equivalent to the mass of one raison, would be enough to kill over 5.

5 million men (averaging weight 70 kg).

,Link- Botox - The worlds deadliest poison#3.

The worlds largest JellyfishThe Lions Mane Jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) is the worlds largest jellyfish with a size estimating to 120 feet.

Its size is actually greater than a Blue Whale!,Link- Lions Mane Jellyfish#4.

Sonys awkward cam recallIn 1998, Sony had to recall 700,000 video cameras after customers realised that the product inadvertently boasted X-ray capabities.

They were not actually camcorders.

They were the devices with which people could actually see through clothes.

Sony still has this tech but will never release it.

,Link- Sonyu2019s awkward 1998 product recall#5.

When the Queen gate-crashed a weddingIn 2012, a Manchester couple jokingly invited Queen Elizabeth to their wedding.

The Queen accepted the invitation and actually made an appearance along with Prince Philip to the wedding.

,Link- Guest of honour: Queen leaves couple stunned after Her Majesty accepts wedding invitation at Manchester town hall#6.

Daylength during the Jurassic eraBecause the speed of Earths rotation changes over time, a day in the age of Dinosaurs was just 21-23 hours long.

Link- http://www.





What the fish!Jellyfish or Jellies, as scientists call them, are not actually fish.

They have no brains, no heart and no bones.

,Link- Jellyfish#8.

Super Mario Bros.

The entire 1985 Super Mario Bros.

game was only 32 kilobytes in size.

The above image was 87 kilobytes at the time of upload!,Link- User-9543289870588445133s answer to Super Mario Bros.

game was just 31 Kilobytes.

Hows that possible?#9.

He-who-must-not-be-named!The role of Lord Voldemort in the Harry Potter series has been played by six actors.

Ralph Fiennes as the Dark Lord, Frank Dillane as a 15-year old in HP6, Hero Fiennes-Tiffin as an 11-year old in HP6, Christian Coulson as a 16-year old in HP2, Ian Harts voice in HP1, and Richard Bremmer non-faced CGI-oriented in HP1.

Link- Lord Voldemort - Wikipedia#10.

Star of the SouthThe Star of the South, one of the largest diamonds in the world, was discovered in a river in Brazil in 1853.

It was found by a slave girl named Rosa, who turned the diamond over to her master.

He rewarded her by granting her freedom, and giving her a pension for life.

,Link- The Star of the South Diamond#11.

Time to pack our bags & go to Arkansas!There is a one-of-a-kind diamond mine called u2018Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas, which is open to the public.

Whatever you find there, you get to keep.

Over 31,000 diamonds have been found since it opened in 1972.

,Link- Diamond Mine - Where Diamonds are Found - Crater of Diamonds - Arkansas Diamond Mine#12.

The legend Michael JacksonMichael Jackson composed songs despite not playing any instruments.

He would build each element of a track with his own voice, so pitch-perfect that studio musicians could actually match chords & scales to his singing.


What if our brain was a computer?If human brain were a computer, it could perform 38 thousand-trillion operations per second.

The worlds most powerful supercomputer, BlueGene, can only manage 0.

002% of that.

,Link- An 83,000-Processor Supercomputer Can Only Match 1% of Your Brain#14.

The Puma & Adidas fuedThe owners of Adidas & Puma, Adolf & Rudalf Dassler, were actually siblings.

In the 1920s, the two Nazi brothers launched a shoe company together in their mothers laundry room.

But as their sales spiked, the tension between the two wors6ened.

After WW2, both of them splitted & opened their respective companies.

,Link- Top 10 Family Feuds - TIME#15.

A bridge not for the faint-hearted!The u201cHaohan Qiaou201d or u201cBrave Mans Bridgeu201d in Hunan, China is 984 feet long and 590 feet high and is the countrys first (and scariest) all-glass suspension bridge.

,Link- This Utterly Terrifying Glass Bridge Just Opened in China#16.

The u2018diving bellu2019 spiderThe diving bell spiders (Argyroneta aquatica) spend almost their entire lives underwater.

They spin air chambers with their silk that allow them to breathe.

They dont even need to resurface to fill the chamber with air as the bubble acts like a gill, extracting dissolved oxygen from the water and despersing carbon dioxide.

,Link- Absurd Creature of the Week: The Incredible Spider That Lives Its Entire Life Underwater#17.

Eco GymAn environment- friendly gym called Eco Gym uses cardio equipment which harvests energy from workouts of its members as a method to cut down on its energy bills.

The savings are then passed back to the gym members, giving them an incentive to return for more exercise.

,Link- Eco Gym: Work Out, Save The Environment, Save Money#18.

You canu2019t read or tell the time while dreaming!If you are not sure whether you are dreaming or not, try reading some book.

The majority of people are incapable of reading in their dreams.

This is because reading and dreaming are the functions of different parts of the brain.

The same goes for time.

Each time you look at a clock, itu2019ll tell a different time and the hands on the clock wonu2019t appear to be moving.

And may be thats why Inception dont have any reading scene.

For more info- Do You Read In Your Dreams?#19.

The Mars ProjectIn 1952, Wernher von Braun wrote a book called The Mars Project which imagined that human colonists on Mars would be led by a person called u201cElon.

u201dSource- r/todayilearned#20.

Rap GodEminems song Rap God is in the Guinness Book of World Records for having the most words in a song (1,560 words in 6:04 minutes at an average of 4.

28 words per second).

,Link- guinnessworldrecords#21.

The oldest meteorite on EarthThe Fukang Meteorite is 4.

5 billion years old and weighs over 2000 pounds.

It was discovered in China in 2014, and was probably formed when solar system was first created.

,Link- Out of this world, quite literally: The beautiful and mysterious Fukang meteorite#22.

Sea Organ which creates enchanting harmonies using winds & waves!There is a 230 feet long sea organ on the coast of Croatia.

The organ, designed by Nikola Basic, has 35 tubes that make beautiful music whenever waves crash into them.

Watch the Video- This Sea Organ Uses Wind And Waves To Create Enchanting Harmonies#23.

Separated at birth, united on Facebook!When Anau00efs Bordier saw a YouTube video of Korean-American actress Samantha Futerman, who looked exactly like her, she Facebook messaged her and discovered they were both adopted and born on the same day.

They were both identical twins separated at birth, whod found each other through happenstance & social media.

,Link- Anais Bordier: Found Long Lost Twin Sister Thanks to Friends and Social Media#24.

The fate of the Japanese prisonersu2026Japanese death row inmates are not told their date of execution.

They wake each day wondering if today may be their last.

,Source- r/todayilearned#25.

A billionaire who lives a simple life!Warren Buffett, the owner of Hathaway Berkshire, who is ranked among the worlds richest men, lives a frugal life.

He doesnt carry any cellphone, doesnt own a computer, and drives his own car!,Link- Warren Buffettu2019s 7 Secrets for Living A Happy and Simple Life#26.

Why are we attracted to glittery things?Humans are always fascinated by glitter because of our evolutionary instinct to seek out water.

The need to stay hydrated has kept us on the lookout for shimmering rivers, therefore giving us an impulse for shiny things.


The Silkie ChickensThe Silkie Chickens, also known as the teddy bears of poultry farm, are well known for their calm, friendly temperament.

Among the most docile of poultry, Silkies are considered an ideal pet.

,Link- Silkie chickens : why theyre the teddy bear of the poultry world.


The real-life Chucky doll of Peruu2026Recently in Peru, a new possessed doll is found.

When the batteries of the doll were removed, it started to move & blink eyes.

All people started to freak out.

It is believed that the doll is carrying someones soul.

Owners are selling that doll for $66.

Anyone can buy it.

,Link- Possessed Peruvian Doll Seems to Talk With No Batteries#29.

The worlds loneliest whaleSomewhere in the North Pacific region, there is a whale known as The worlds loneliest whale, last seen in 2004.

It calls out at a frequency that is unable to be heard by other whales, and therefore receives no response.

It swims the oceans in search of its friends, but receives no reply.

,Link- The worlds loneliest whale,#30.

The forgotten planetu2026It takes the dwarf planet 248.

09 Earth years to complete one revolution around the sun.

Pluto will complete its first full orbit since its discovery on 23rd March, 2071 (Monday).

Link- When Will Pluto Complete Its First Orbit Since Its Discovery?#31.

u201cThe Inception Villageu201dThere is a beautiful u2018inception village in Gloucestershire, England.

The main attraction in the small village of the Bourton-on-the-water is a tiny scale model of itself, inside a tiny scale model of itself, inside a tiny scale model of itself, inside a tiny scale model of itselfu2026Just like the dream concept in the Inception movie.

,Link- The village inside a village inside a village inside a village#32.

The 3 cousins who could not save WW1 from happening!At the time of WW1, the kings of Russia, Britain & Germany were all first cousins.

When asked about World War I, Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany sarcastically remarked,u201cIf my grandmother [Queen Victoria] had been alive, she would never have allowed it!u201d,Link- The Family Relationships that Couldnu2019t Stop World War I#33.

The SunThe sun is so loud that if space was filled with air, it would be 125 decibels on Earth, 92 million miles away!,For more info- How loud would the Sun be if we could hear it? - TechlyWhat is a decibel, and how is it measured?#34.

The worlds oldest animalThe oldest animal ever recorded on Earth till date was a 507-year-old Mollusk called Ming.

It died because the British researchers who found it didnt realise how old it was, so they froze it to death for research purposes.

,Link- Scientists accidentally kill worlds oldest animal at age 507#35.

Forest in a Guitar!There is a guitar-shaped forest in Argentina.

7000 Cypress & Eucalyptus trees were planted by a farmer in 1979 as a tribute to his late wife.

He has never been able to see it himself from above because he is terrified of flying.

,Link- Man Plants Guitar Shaped Forest in Memory of His Wife#36.

Lake Nyos DisasterA small Crater lake in Africa killed over 1700 villagers and 3500 livestock overnight when it suddenly released 300,000 tons of carbon dioxide, suffocating everyone within 16 miles.

Scientists still dont know what triggered the event.

,Link- Deadly Lake Kills 1,746#37.

Neutrino100,000,000,000 solar neutrinos pass through every square centimeter of your body every second.


Feeling small enough?According to scientists, if the Milky Way galaxy was scaled down to the size of the Continental United States, the Sun would be the size of a white blood cell.


Non-reversible mirrorThere is a company named TrueMirroru00ae that makes non-reversible mirrors.

Instead of u2018mirroringu2019 you (your left is the mirrors left), it shows you how you actually appear to others.

,Link- See Your Light, Love Your Lightu2122#40.

A survivors taleu2026A man, after surviving 33 days lost at sea, finally came ashore by chance on the Marshall Islands only to discover that his uncle, believed lost at sea 50 years ago, had washed ashore on the same island and started a family there.

Link- Pacific Island sailors lost at sea for 33 days wash up on remote atoll u2013 and discover descendants of uncle feared drowned in the Fifties#41.

The fastest data transfer technologyLi-Fi technology is a groundbreaking light-based communication technology, which makes use of light waves instead of radio technology to deliver data.

It can deliver upto 1 GB data in one second(1 GB/sec).

,Link- What is Li-Fi internet? 1GB/sec transfers speeds, 100 times faster than normal Wi-Fi#42.

The unique libraryThere exists one-of-its-kind Human Library where you can check out people instead of books.

You can u201cborrowu201d a person who has stories to tell you, based on their unique life experiences.

,Link- The Human Library Organization - HumanLibrary.


The plastic-eating wormWax Worms can eat and break down one of the most common plastic, polyethylene.

Their digestive process breaks the plastics polymer chains, producing an organic compound.

,For more info- Wax worms biodegrade plastic bags at uniquely high speeds, study finds#44.

Astronaut who loved his daughterThe last man to walk on the moon, Eugene Cernan, promised his daughter heu2019d write her initials on the moon.

He did, and her initials, u201cTDC,u201d will probably be on the moon for tens of thousands of yearsu2026,Link- Eugene Cernan: Last Man on the Moon#45.

A dish crawling with live maggots! On Purposeu2026Casu marzu is a Sardinian cheese that contains live maggots.

The maggots can jump up to five inches out of cheese while youre eating it, so its a good idea to shield it with your hand to stop them jumping into your eyes.

,Link- This Cheese Has Maggots In It.


When Blackjack saved FedEx from becoming Bankruptu2026Just before going out of business, the founder of FedEx, Frederick Smith, took the companys last funds $5000, went to Las Vegas and played Blackjack.

Amazingly, when he came back the next week, he had turned the remaining $5000 into $27000, just enough for the company to stay in operation!Link- The Founder Of FedEx Saved The Company From Bankruptcy With His Blackjack Winnings#47.

The accidental discoveryOne day in 1853, in a diner at Moon Lake Lodge, the chef George Crum sliced a potato paper-thin and fried it so heavily, it could not be cut with a fork.

But the customers loved them.

Later on, they came to be called as potato chips.

Link-George Crum: Inventor of Potato Chips#48.

Who exactly built the Taj?There is still no proof that Shah Jahan actually built Taj Mahal.

Some people claim that it was originally a Hindu temple, but later, Shah Jahan captured it and turned this beautiful wonder into a tomb known as Taj Mahal.

Some original rooms & foundations in Taj Mahal that existed have been hidden and crudely covered up away from the public gaze.

The origin of this fact is still a mystery to the public.

,Source- Was the Taj Mahal originally an ancient Hindu temple?#49.

The creation of moonA Mars-sized object called Theia crashed into Earth 4.

5 billion years ago, chipping off a vaporized chunk of rock that became the moon, and making the Earths axis tilt slightly.

Link- How Was the Moon Formed?#50.

The photonIt takes a photon, on average, 170,000 years to travel from the core of the sun to the surface.

Then it takes just 8 minutes from the suns surface to your eyesu2026,Link- How Long Does It Take for Photons to Emerge From the Suns Core to the Outside?#51.

Incredible facts about the Human EyeUntil about 10,000 years ago, all human beings had brown eyes.

Blue eyes are a most recent phenomenon caused by genetic mutation, a sign that humans are still evolving.

Assuming a flat Earth and complete darkness, a human eye is sensitive enough to spot a candle flame, flickering about 30 miles (48 kms) away.

The focussing muscle of human eye moves about 1000,000 times everyday.

Oldest rock in the world Australia

Nigel, all your questions about Australian indigenous people and Eskimos are tedious, nonsensical and not really deserving answers.

Are igneous rocks the oldest type of rock

Itu2019s a mistake to say that the earth is 4.

5 billion years old.

It is a mistake, because this is not, in point of fact, what scientific inquiry tells us.

Science tells us that some minerals on earth are at least 4.


003 billion years old.

Further inquiry tells us that some zircons (zirconium silicate crystals) that make up some of these very old rocks formed at least 4.


008 billion years ago.

The earth is, obviously, considerably older than this, but these are the oldest datable materials we have found thus far.

,Now, itu2019s very reasonable to ask how we know these dates to this fairly impressive level of accuracy (and yes, when youu2019re talking about 4.

4 billion years, a window of 8 million years is very, very accurate indeed).

The answer has to do with properties of zircons, how they form, and statistical quantum mechanics.

,Zircons are very hard, very durable crystals.

They are frequent components of igneous minerals, solidifying out of molten rock.

Because they are so hard and so durable, zircon crystals frequently survive the decomposition of their original igneous minerals by forces of erosion and wind up deposited in sedimentary or metamorphic rocks with their crystal structures intact.

Scientists are able to isolate and analyze these crystals in order to study their structures and contents.

,An interesting and useful property of zircons is that when these crystals form, they can trap radioactive elements, notably uranium.

Some zircons contain up to 1% uranium by weight.

All radioactive elements decay at an observable and constant rate which is described by quantum mechanics.

Iu2019m going to make a quick aside about quantum mechanicsu2014the standard model of particle physics is one of the best and most thoroughly tested theories in the history of science.

It has passed every test from the most mundane to the fairly recent discovery of the Higgs boson, with properties as predicted by the standard model, at the Large Hadron Collider.

Quantum mechanics works.

If it didnu2019t you couldnu2019t read this and I couldnu2019t write this (because semiconductorsu2014the family of components that include transistorsu2014make up the working parts of the computer or smartphone youu2019re using to read this and the working parts of the computer Iu2019m using to write this now and semiconductors are quantum mechanical devicesu2014if quantum mechanics didnu2019t work, neither would they).

We know with great certainty, proven repeatedly in thousands of experimental tests that the standard modelu2019s description of radioactive decay is accurate.

,By measuring the ratios of decay products trapped inside the crystalline structure of zircon crystals, we can accurately determine their age over a very great amount of time.

This is how we know that the oldest native mineral ever found on earth solidified out of molten rock 4.


008 billion years ago.

This is how we know that the oldest native rock found on earthu2019s surface, thus far, is 4.


003 billion years old.

These rocks did not simply appear.

They, like all minerals, are the end products of geological and cosmological processes.

,Calcium-aluminum inclusions or CAIu2019s are a type of crystal inclusion found in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites.

These minerals are believed to be early condensates from the formation of the solar system.

They are around 287 million years older than the oldest native minerals found on earth and constitute the oldest reliably dated material ever discovered with an age of 4.


017 billion years.

Now, because this is science I should point out that the dating method used in the case of CAIu2019s is different from the one used with Zircons.

Instead of measuring Uranium decay products, we are measuring the ratio of lead isotopes present in the crystals.

This also relies on radioactive decay, but has a greater sensitivity to certain factors.

This is part of the reason for the comparatively large error range.