How did we get Niagara Falls? I understand it was due to erosion, but why did we have such a massive erosion at just one spot?

How far is Hamilton from Niagara Falls

A few things had to happen to get Niagara Falls.

,The first is the Niagara Escarpment, which is incredibly long, stretching from Wisconsin to New York through Ontario.

,The Escarpment was formed by erosion and pre-dates the last four ages by several million years.

The land inside the circle is characterized by a very hard base of an erosion resistant rock called dolomite that sits on top of sandstone that erodes easily.

,This is Hamilton, Ontario.

The escarpment cuts across the picture from lower left to upper right.

Along its length there are literally dozens of small waterfalls, including some very nice ones like this one,So the escarpment was already there when the glaciers receded.

When the glaciers receded, they also formed two large lakes which geologists now call Lake Tonawanda (early lake Eire) and Lake Iroquois (early lake Ontario).

These two lakes were much bigger than the two lakes there now.

,Because of the strange topography of the Niagara Frontier, a large lake geologists call Lake Tonawanda formed at the top of the escarpment,Lake Tonawanda was fed by Lake Eire which was being fed by a constant flow of melting glacier so there was a lot of water.

Because the escarpment is topped by very hard rock, the river was very shallow as it couldnu2019t erode the underlying rock.

There were in fact three Niagara Falls at the beginning, much further north than their present location.

The one we know and love started near whatu2019s now Lewiston, NY.

Because it was largely fed by Lake Tonawanda and not the river, the falls used to be much wider at the beginning.

,However, as we can see in the modern Horseshoe Falls, once erosion starts, it tends to be concentrated in one area.

The Horseshoe Falls are actually getting more curved as time goes on.

,So it was with early Niagara Falls.

After a while, the section fed by the river and not the lake started moving back quicker and this made the water flow faster and more heavily through the more eroded section.

Eventually, the falls moved far enough back to drain Lake Tonawanda into it, cutting off the flow to the other two waterfalls.

,Now, the sandstone under the hard rock topping is very soft and erodes quickly.

It would have eroded more quickly except for the erosion resistant topping.

However, the dolomite on top, although it never erodes, does eventually lose its support and falls into the gorge in big blocks.

,Thatu2019s a big block of dolomite that fell off the falls about 10,000 years ago.

This is in Niagara Glen, about 8 miles downstream of where the falls are now.

,Unlike other minor waterfalls over the escarpment (there are hundreds) Niagara is fed by the Niagara River, which drains Lake Eire.

On average, thatu2019s over 3,000 tons of water a second, about 90% of which flows over the Horseshoe falls.

,Prior to the diversion of water for hydroelectricity, that much water meant that the falls eroded about a foot a year.

Now its closer to an inch per decade (Only about half the water coming from Lake Eire now goes over the falls).

The Niagara flows day and night 365 days a year.

,And hereu2019s the geology of the falls.

The Lockport layer, which is dolomite, erodes incredibly slowly, but the sandstone and shale erode quickly.

The only thing that keeps them from not eroding more quickly is the dolomite on top.

In addition to water flowing over them, in winter water freezes in the shale breaking it apart and making it loose, a process thatu2019s still going on all along the gorge.

,Hereu2019s a section of the escarpment near Rochester, New York which shows the same geology.

Although the process is slower, the whole escarpment has been eroding like this for millions of years.

At the bottom of this picture you see the pile of loose rock caused by freezing that breaks the shale and limestone apart.

Eventually, that will wear away and the dolomite will fall off the cliff as well.

The water just helps the process along.

,One of the big exceptions is the Whirlpool, which is about 4 miles downstream of the falls.

,The whirlpool used to a be a hole in the top of the escarpment, probably filled by a small lake.

When the falls reached this area about 5,000 years ago, it was full of sediment.

Itu2019s estimated that the force of the river, now unrestrained by the dolomite wall, was scoured out in the course of a single day until the falls reached a new dolomite cliff further upstream.

How far is Hamilton from Mississauga

Mississauga is right beside Toronto so it can feel like a suburb of Toronto.

Oshawa and Hamilton are far enough from Toronto to be not as developed as Toronto.

The means the housing in both cities are cheaper than Toronto.

They are nice cities but not as busy as Toronto.

The job market is smaller as well.

How far is Hamilton from Ottawa

Itu2019s complicated.

,Letu2019s get one thing straight though.

The national championship game, the Grey Cup, usually finishes near the top of most watched television programs in Canada every year.

If you go to the game, expect to see large contingents of fans from every CFL city, including a contingent from Baltimore, MD.

In 2019, not only was the final a sell-out, but it had a peak audience of just under 10 million - about 27% of the entire population of the country.

That made it the 9th most watched television program in Canadian history.

,During the regular season thoughu2026.

eh, not so much.

Broadcast games (all on cable, and all games are televised at non-conflicting times) average about 450,000 viewers.

,And at the gate? That varies quite wildly.

Saskatchewan is clearly the hotbed of the league due to its lack of other professional sports options and averages well over 30,000 fans a game, usually packing their home field Mosaic Stadium.

Edmonton is close behind despite competition from hockey, but 30,000 fans is less than half capacity for their home, Commonwealth Stadium.

Calgary and Winnipeg arenu2019t far behind with 26,000 with Calgary playing in ancient McMahon Stadium and Winnipeg playing in beautiful new IG Field.

The next tier is Hamilton with 23,000 and Ottawa with 22,000.

Hamilton does fairly well as it also has no other professional sports team and plays in brand new Tim Hortonu2019s Field, where they generally win consistently.

Ottawau2019s TD Stadium is similarly new.

,The next tier is BC (Vancouver) and Montreal with about 17,000 each.

However, thatu2019s a fraction of the aging but renovated BC Place Stadiumu2019s capacity, although itu2019s a substantial capacity for Montrealu2019s Molson Stadium, which is now well over a century old but has been renovated and is popular with the fans.

,But trailing the pack is Toronto with its 13,000 average attendance at BMO.

The Argos used to draw much larger crowds to the absolutely horrible Exhibition Stadium into the 1980s where crowds of 33,000 would be considered small.

In addition to the competition for fans, BMO Field, although new, was built for soccer and many fans think itu2019s a step down from Rogers Centre, which was largely built with football in mind during the Argosu2019 glory years.

Hamilton to Ontario distance

Fly from Hamilton, Ontario airport instead of Toronto.

NewLeaf airlines flies from there.

They are cheap.

Also WestJet flies from there to Halifax.

Because it is so competitive between the two airlines the Hamilton to Halifax flight is half the price of the Toronto to Halifax flight (at least when I booked it).

toronto to hamilton, ontario

Im going to echo many of the statements from other Quorans here, but:,If you are going downtown to downtown, and you can catch one of the 6 trains each way each day, its a palatable if somewhat busy commute.

Its ~1 hour, seats really free up after about Oakville, and its okay as long as theres no major delays.

Outside of that, the 16 express bus, while a breeze outside rush hours, can take 90+ minutes, depending on the traffic situation.

(Of course, because most take the train in the morning, its sometimes nice if you just want a seat).

,The key here is getting to Hamilton GO Centre.

Depending where you are in Hamilton (East Mountain, Ancaster, Dundas, Stoney Creek), just getting to the train can add 30u201345 minutes using the HSR.

Driving, your only choices are West Harbour (question to anyone who knows why: why is most of its parking still fenced off?) or more realistically, Aldershot (manyfold more trains a day, but the 403 from The Linc to Waterdown is not fun in rush hours, be it in your car, or on the 18 bus).

,Is it manageable? Absolutely.

Although I live in Toronto (my girlfriend lives in Hamilton), I commute within Toronto on the TTC for an hour each way, each day.

The commute downtown to downtown is the same.

Get a good book, listen to music or audible, just get a good pair of headphones and the time melts away.

,Is it worth it? It is $400+ youll be spending on transit.

If you already live in Hamilton, this doesnt really apply, but if you live in Toronto and want to move to Hamilton, unless your pull factors are greater (family, you love the city, etc), it really comes down to whether spending the $400+ on your Presto card each month is outweighed by cheaper housing in Hamilton vs what you paid or potentially pay in Toronto.

It can be worth it, and Hamilton has warmed on me over the last year, but it depends on you and your financial position.

,Hope this helps.

How far is Hamilton from Brampton

Well, there is more than one big flaw.

,A flaw might imply something that can be fixed.

Not everything can be fixed.

And, not all flaws stem from the different levels of government.

,I believe that some of the current major flaws stem from how Canada came out of the 1950s.

As I have said in other Answers, there was a very rapid reshaping of Canadian society, as Canada urbanized and Ontarios cities became much more ethnically diverse.

Some of the changes had to do with the rapid decline of organized religion, and changing ideas about the role of women.

,These changes were guided by the elites of Central Canada.

They looked after their own interests.

However, they were stuck with Canadas constitutional and legal framework.

The eventual efforts of the elite to u201cpatriateu201d the Canadian constitution stirred up a lot of bad feelings that they probably didnt expect.

Canadas elites had and have a limited perspective and still do.

There were things that might have been done in the new Constitution, but, in so troubled a process, they were not not going to make it happen.

,No English-Speaking CanadaOlder Canadians might remember the u201cDeux Nationsu201d (Two Nations) debates of the 1960s and 1970s.

The theory was that, Canada consisted of the two founding nations, which ought to be seen as equal.

,However, what we ended up with, was, one rather traditional type of nation, Quebec, and an entity that sort of dared not to speak its name, English-speaking Canada.

After all the constitutional fussing, nothing really happened about that entity.

The u201cNotwithstandingu201d clause was, above all, reassurance to Quebec.

,In my opinion, a basic and serious flaw is that, there is no Parliament of the English-speaking Canadians.

This made it impossible to have the English-speaking co-nation that Quebec was looking for.

Instead, we have eight disputatious provinces where English is the majority language.

(I believe that New Brunswick is a unique case.

),I am as wary as any Canadian of the overarching power of the Toronto-Hamilton Census Metropolitan Area.

Also, I am reluctant to recommend another layer of politicians.

However, the provincial governments exercise their power in ways that are not always helpful to life in English-speaking Canada.

I say English-speaking Canada needs its own, because, it should have been made explicit that Quebec is a special case.

While it might be nice if they were to agree to align more of their attitudes and governmental policies with, whatever the norms of English-speaking Canada are, they wont.

Pressing them could possibly cause terminal divisions.

,The eight predominantly English-speaking provinces have a population of somewhat under thirty million.

That is far less than the state of California.

What is the rationale for having different professional and trades admission standards, different speed limits, different securities laws, and post-secondary institutions that charge students from another province limited admission at higher fees? Is it especially useful for each one to operate its own public health insurance system? For that matter, what justifies stopping any sort of trade at a provincial boundary, or having different provincial standards for truck weights?,So, we end up in a situation where provincial governments partially justify charging taxes and fees, simply because they exist, each one with a bureaucracy, including the attendant benefits and pensions.

,At one time, distance and terrain made it necessary to have provinces, each with a big sphere of authority.

However, we can move information anywhere now.

When so many government services are provided on line, does it matter whether the processing centre is 100 kilometres or two thousand kilometre away?,I am talking about the practical and fiscal flaws of having provincial governments with such extensive powers.

However, there is a symbolic issue.

English-speaking Canadians have no empowered forum where they can discuss, what their Canada is, and should be.

A provincial Premiers conference isnt a substitute.

,Ottawa Is A Bad Place For A National CapitalI say that, after being a bureaucrat here for years.

I would classify part of Ottawa life as the search for faded gentility.

You dont see a smokestack here.

You dont see a mine.

You dont see a port.

You dont see the issues of a large, metropolitan city.

You certainly dont see farmers growing grain, logging or a commercial fishery.

The business community admits that they have difficulty convincing the young IT people to come here, because, frankly, the place is uptight and aggressively boring.

,You do see career civil servants leading financially secure lives in adequate suburbs.

In fact, we are seeing second and third generation public servants.

What tie to Canadian reality are they going to have?,I firmly believe it, if you dont see something physically in front of you, you dont care.

The federal policy recommenders are people who live out their working lives here, often from start to finish.

,Ottawa is a bad place for a national capital, particularly the policy recommenders, the people who produce their data, and the senior bureaucrats who make the decisions.

What would your view of the oil sands be if you had to live in Fort McMurray or Drayton Valley? How would you see Canadas navy if you had to live in Esquimalt? How would you see immigration policy if you had to work out of Richmond, B.


, or Brampton, Ontario?.

How would you prioritize the federal governments relations with Canadas indigenous peoples, if your office was on Main Street in Winnipeg? Why do you need to be physically in Ottawa, when there are national data bases, conference calls and Skype?,I have spent enough time being a government worker here in Ottawa-Gatineau, to know it is a real, real problem.

Being a federal government public servant is a 7.

5 hour a day job, that is very hard to get fired out of.

It is a living, attached, if your position is high enough, to an ego trip.

A lot of your reality is what you see on the bus riding to and from work, or, if you are a mover and shaker, driving to your private parking space on the way to your office.

,Our Cities Make No SenseThis is a problem that does not primarily flow from the federal government.

The real political deciders are at the municipal level.

They make the zoning bylaws and decide where the local roads are supposed to be.

But, Canadian home buyers have their preferences and property developers will cater to them.

,Our cities strive to be something like Adelaide, Australia or Tuscon.

However, it is really, really cold in most of Canada.

A detached bungalow burns a lot of heat.

The snow has to be plowed right up to the door, fast, because people need to drive their car in order to survive.

,This isnt how it is done in much of the developed world.

It isnt the same in much of Europe.

Many of the cities are tightly-packed, the streets lined with apartment buildings with shopping on the ground floor.

A tram, a bus, or a subway train comes by every five minutes.

,The Canadian system of urban design was tolerable when places like Calgary and Ottawa had 250,000 people.

But some of our cities are nowadays much bigger while the sprawl continues.

Driving seven kilometres to get downtown in heavy snow was doable.

When heat doesnt cost too much, you crank it up from one end of the bungalow to the other.

However, what happens when the drive is thirty kilometres and, to get enough heat per bungalow, we will have to build more nuclear plants, burn more coal or even carpet large rural areas with wind power plants, and then pay very large amounts for some sort of battery or hydraulic storage?,The current approach to the expansion of Canadian cities is badly flawed.

It could produce a crisis, where municipalities will have to force intensification and ban cars from downtown streets.

(Or, impose London-type entry fees.

) It could force Canadian cities to build on their Green Belts.

It could turn the outer suburbs into slums.

,Municipalities Are More Than u201cCreatures Of The Provincesu201dCanadas original constitution kept the municipalities that way, and no one moved to change it in the 1982 Constitution.

What if, the Toronto-Hamilton CMA was detached from Ontario, and then told, OK, you make your choices about residential zoning.

Then, you finance it.

Then you take responsibility for what happens.

,The British North America Act never envisioned Canada having metropolitan areas with millions of people.

Giving provincial governments total control is bad for the provinces, and the big cities.

It makes whole provinces submit to the legislative representatives of the big cities.

It gives municipal politicians a convenient out.

They can incur high costs for bad planning and then transfer the tax consequences to the whole province.

It is quite damaging and apparently getting worse,A Free Country?The great reforms of the 1960s and 1970s lifted some of the theocratic control over the lives of individual Canadians.

However, the job wasnt completed.

And, the remaining restrictions dont get challenged.

,I lived in a European country that had no liquor licences.

Society does not collapse.

Restaurants are subject to strict hygienic inspections.

They have legal brothels too, the classic red light over the door.

There is no social calamity.

Women remain safe on the streets.

,In Canada we have some consensus about absolute freedoms that really have to be restrained.

We have free speech but criminalize hate speech.

You have to watch the pronouns you use.

However, we still have some 1950s morality hiding underneath, pretending to be a prospect of consensus, and pretending to legitimately override some freedoms.

,We do not need punitive drinking laws.

There is no reason not to have corner bars, with no food service.

There is no justification for city wide, uniform bar closing hours.

If a bar is sufficiently far from any residential premises, what justifies ordering the owner to close it at any given time? And, banning legal prostitution, and women working in brothels, is a vestige of church Canada.

Prostitution goes on in very high volumes, and the women are more at risk.

,Sometimes Canadians should not compromise.

We know when some restrictions on freedom are really necessary to protect public safety and public order.

But we dont fight back against restrictions that are outdated religious and bureaucratic power trips.

This is a flaw in a lot of Canadians.

,Martin Levine

How far is Hamilton from Scarborough

In general, you can expect 6u20138 questions from the maps section in UPSC prelims.

nThere is a wrong notion among some UPSC candidates that they can learn everything by heart as far as maps are concerned.

But this is incorrect.


nWhat is needed is a strategic understanding of the kind of questions asked by the UPSC and tips on how to deal with them.

,Now, Will tell you few tips .


,You must know about mountains of the world and the continent in which they are present.

,For eg.

, a probable question can be, u2018in which continent are the Rocky Mountains present?u2019 (Answer: North America),Similarly, you should study grasslands and deserts.

,West Asia :-This region is called West Asia from an Indian point of view, but is known as the Middle East in the West.

,You must know about the various seas like Caspian Sea and Aral Sea.

,Probable question: Which countries border the Caspian Sea?Answer: Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Azerbaijan.

Between which two countries is the Aral Sea situated?Answer: Uzbekistan and KazakhstanArabian Peninsula :-This is very important as far as UPSC is concerned because of the ISIS problem going on in that region & most of indian officials visit to this countries often.


So, this area that many current affairs ques will also be involved in this area!nHere also, observe all the countries and their capitals.

You may be asked to arrange all the capitals from north to south or from east to west.

u25cf Know all the capitals like Riyadh, Doha, Amman, etc.

and their locations.

,u25cf The next important point in this region is the Red Sea.


The Red Sea is surrounded by which countries?Answer: Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia.

u25cf Other important areas here are Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Aqaba and Gulf of Suez.

,Persian Gulf :-Focus on this region since you always get a question on Israel and Palestine.

,Know about the regions in Palestine like the Gaza Strip, Golan Heights and West Bank.

,Possible question: Countries which border Israel.

Answer: Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanonu25cf Again it is reiterated that you must learn to arrange all relevant capitals from north to south or east to west, etc.

,Focus on the Black Sea area.

Important seas like Black Sea, Sea of Azov, Sea of Marmara and Aegean Sea.

,Possible question: countries surrounding Black Sea.

,Answer: Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey and Georgia.

Crimea is an important region as there is a lot of unrest here.

Central Asian countries :-Know the capitals of countries here like Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, etc.

,East Asia :-u25cf China is very important.

,u25cf Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea (know what places border them),u25cf Places in China.


Important cities in China are Beijing, Shanghai, Harbin, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Zhengzhou and Chengdu.

(Bangalore and Chengdu are being developed as sister cities),u25cf Kolkata-Kunming u2013 a route is planned between these two cities.

,A possible question is: Arrange Kolkata, Dhaka, Naypyidaw and Kunming from East to West.

South China Sea :-Places here are China, Vietnam, Hainan, Malaysia and Philippines.

China is involved in disputes with many countries here.

Places in dispute are Paracel, Scarborough Shoal and The Spratly Islands.

Possible question: Which island is disputed between China and Philippines?,Rivers in Southeast Asia .


Possible question: Arrange the rivers from west to east u2013 Irrawaddy, Salween, Chao Phraya and Mekong.

,Indonesia :-u25cf Focus on Sumatra and Jakarta.

(Sumatra was the epicentre of the Tsunami in 2004),South Asia :-SAARC countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives),Japan :-u25cf Four major islands u2013 Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu,u25cf Places to remember u2013 Fukushima, Osaka, Hyogo, Kyoto, Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Tokyo.

,Australia :-u25cf Physical map is important.

,Great Dividing Range, Simpson Desert, Great Barrier Reef, Great Victoria Desert, Kimberley Plateau, Arafura Sea, Timor Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria, Bass Strait, Tasmania, Murray River Basin.

Possible question: Which continent is the Great Dividing Range situated?,u25cf Cities in Australia u2013 Sydney, Canberra, Perth, Adelaide, Darwin, Brisbane and Melbourne.


Arrange from north to south.

,New Zealand :-North Island and South Island separated by Cook Straight.

Mount Cook, Southern Alps,Cities u2013 Christchurch, Dunedin, Napier, Hamilton, Auckland.

,Europe :-u25cf Mediterranean Sea, Turkey, Greece (important),Possible question: countries around Mediterranean Sea.

,Answer: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Cyprus, Syria, Turkey, Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, Italy, France and Spain.

Greece :-Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Crete.

,Islands of Greece,Scandinavian Peninsula :-u25cf Countries around,u25cf Baltic Sea,u25cf Kael Canal,u25cf Capitals of the countries,North America :-u25cf Physical mapa.

Appalachian Mountains, Ozark Plateau, Edwardu2019s Plateau, Rocky Mountains, Columbia Plateau, Sierra Nevada, Sonora Desert, Colorado Plateau.


Lakes u2013 Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario,u25cf Places here u2013 must know how to arrange them in the asked order,Countries are important.


Which is the country that borders both the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico?Answer: ColumbiaEg.

Which countries in South America does not share border with Brazil?Answer: Chile and Ecuadoru25cf Know the capitals.

,u25cf Physical map (Amazon Basin, Brazilian Highlands, Brazilian Shield, Pampas, Patagonian Desert, Andes Mountains, Llanos, Campos and Llanos, Atacama Desert, Galapagos Islands),Africa :-u25cf Western areasKnow what all countries are called Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Slave Coast and Grain Coast.

,u25cf Red Sea area u2013 important because of piracy,u25cf South AfricaEg.

Which are the enclave countries? (Swaziland and Lesotho),Important places in South Africa (Cape Town, Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban and Bloemfontein),u25cf Important countries u2013 Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique.

,u25cf Physical mapSahara Desert, Congo Basin, Namib Desert, Kalahari Desert, Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, Atlas Range, East African Rift Valley,River Nile, Congo River, Aswan Dam,In a nutshell, these are the important points to remember:Physical features in all continents,Arranging cities and places from north to south, east to west, etc,Seas,Lakes,Deserts,Hope It helps :)

Toronto to Hamilton GO Train

I did this trip for years.

Itu2019s terrible, draining, and not good for your health.

I was one of those people that moved to Hamilton to enjoy lower costs, but as you can see from my byline, I moved back and donu2019t even slightly regret it.

,Yes, you can look at the schedule and pick out the express trains that will get you between Hamilton GO and Union Station in about 1h15.

That sounds cool on the face of it, right? Itu2019s an Express Train! But:,In Hamilton, if you miss the train by 30 seconds, you have to wait 30 minutes for the next oneu2026.

if there is a next train.

You will end up taking the express bus which is fine, but will usually take 90 minutes given the QEW/Gardner traffic during the morning rush.

Or, youu2019ll get on the bus to Aldershot then pick up the train there u2014 also about 90 minutes.

,The last inbound train leaves West Harbour GO at 6:38am and Hamilton GO at 7:18am.

This means if you are coming in for a start time after 9:00am, you will have to take a bus (or drive) to Aldershot GO.

,Were you thinking of driving to the station? There is no parking at Hamilton GO.

West Harbour has some parking, but really, this is only useful if you have an 8am-ish start time at your job.

,Do you trust the HSR to get you to the train on time, with absolute consistency? Also note that if youu2019re coming from points east or west of downtown Hamilton, you will have walk three blocks from the Gore Park bus stops.

In the dark.

In the snow.

,At Union Station, you have to be on the train 10 minutes before departure time if you want a seat.

If you donu2019t get a seat, you will be standing for 25 minutes minimum at the end of your work day.

,If youu2019re coming home from work after the last express train, your fastest option is to take the Hamilton-QEW Express bus.

Youu2019ll want to show up for this 10 minutes early so you can have a chance at getting a pair of seats near the front of the bus to yourself.

(Yes, sit at the front u2014 youu2019ll wait an extra 2 minutes to disembark if you sit at the back.

),It is expensive.

40 trips per month will cost you $400 if you use Presto.

Add $60 more for the TTC and $52 for the HSR.

This number goes up every year at a rate faster than inflation.

The public transit tax credit introduced in the early days of the Harper government was retired last year so you wonu2019t be getting any of that back.

,Nobodyu2019s body is designed to sit in those seats for 2 hours 50 minutes, which is the amount of time youu2019ll spend in them.


,Upsides?,There arenu2019t very many people on the Burlington - Hamilton stretch so you can stretch out a bit.

,There is a nice little cafe at Hamilton GO.

,The quiet zone rules are respected by almost everyone.

,Heating and A/C are usually working nicely through the year.

,The underground PATH system is nice u2014 you can get all the way from the GO train to Eatonu2019s Centre or Metro Hall, or without going outside.