What continent is found at 20 south and 100 east
Hereu2019s a few of my favorites:,Saiga antelope:,A unique bovid that is a true ice age relict, saiga had a broad expanse across the Northern Hemisphere during the Pleistocene epoch, roaming the vast Mammoth Steppe alongside the ecosystemu2019s namesake shaggy elephants as well as woolly rhinos, cave lions, and cave hyenas.
In modern times, theyu2019re been restricted to the grasslands of Central Asia, where they did just fine until we began overhunting them.
Their population crashed from 2 million in the early 1990s, to, following the collapse of the USSR, only 100,000 a decade later.
By the 2010s, their numbers had stabilized following protections, but in both 2015 and 2016 mysterious mass die-offs occurred due to goat plague, something that has been attributed to anthropogenic climate change.
Today there are only around 40,000 saiga left in the wild, and if a morality event on the scale of the one that happened in 2015 took place (which had an estimated 120,000 casualties) the entire species would surely perish.
,Antelopes getting buried after the apocalypseSilky sifaka:,Likely sporting the palest coat of any primate (excluding unusual color variations) and sometimes even having a pink face to go along with it, this lemur is found in small areas of mountain rainforest in Madagascaru2019s northeast.
Its habitat is being destroyed with slash-and-burn agriculture as well as being logged for its wood, and on top of that the sifakas are hunted by local people for their meat.
The IUCN considers this mammal to be one of the 25 Most Endangered Primates, and population estimates are that there are no more than 1,000 remainingu2026 and possibly as little as 100.
,Malagasy with some freshly killed lemurs for consumptionAsiatic cheetah:,Now, I know everyone knows what a cheetah is.
But did you know that there were cheetahs in Iran? Although heavily associated with the savannas of sub-Saharan Africa, cheetahs formerly had a broad distribution across Western and Central Asia, getting as far away from Africa as Kazakhstan in the north and Bangladesh in the east! Persecution and habitat destruction wiped this cat out across all of the Asian continent aside from eastern and central Iran, where today as few as 50 cheetahs are left.
Loss of prey, conflict with livestock herders, and human intrusion on their sadly habitat continues to push these magnificent felines towards extinction.
,Yellow-eyed penguin:,This penguin might look like the opening to a joke, but itu2019s in its natural habitat.
Breeding on the southern island of New Zealand and on several smaller islands to the south, this striking bird sometimes builds its nests in forest and scrub, environments one would not except to find a penguin in! It is sadly one of the most endangered penguins on earth, with fisheries and pollution causing a 75% population on the Otago Peninsula in the past 20 years, and the total number of yellow-eyed penguins left estimated at only 4,000.
Tourism in their habitat is also shown to have negatively affected the penguinsu2019 breeding success.
,Gharial:,One of the largest crocodilians, the gharial is a strict fish-eater despite its intimidating size and scary-looking teeth.
Although now restricted to a few tributaries of the Ganges, it was once found across Northern Indiau2019s river systems.
Between 1946 and 2006, it experienced a population decline from 10,000 to only 250u2014 98% of gharials lost in just three generations.
The primary reasons behind this decline were fishing and the use of gill nets as well as alterations to their habitat with dams, barrages, irrigation canals, and salt mining.
What ocean is at 40 south and 100 east
A real size of an empire is the amount of land that it has a control of it.
Therefore from my point of view, Romans had reached to their natural boundaries.
They further tested their abilities against Germans and Persians.
It did not work.
Nature is the biggest obstacle for all empires.
By Atlantic Ocean on west, Indian Ocean in the east, immense African lands on south and famous Germanic people and forests on north, Rome had reached its climax.
There was nothing to do theoretically or practically.
,Hadrianu2019s Wall was an important political and symbolic decision to draw Roman boundaries and stop further expansion policy.
Further land was simply not manageable.
Therefore if an empire lacks the talent to manage the conquered territories, theoretically pr practically , the land does not belong to that empire anyway.
On the other hand , colonial powers like small Belgium managed to control Congo in modern age.
The real size of an empire really depends on the level of control.
,Source of the picture: Hadrianu2019s Wallu2018u2019 By the time Emperor Hadrian came to power in 117 A.
, the Romans no longer sought to expand their territory.
Instead, they wanted to protect what they hadu2014from the Caledonians and others.
,Under Hadrianu2019s orders, the Roman governors of Britain began building the wall that would later be named for the emperor to defend the part of Britain they controlled from attack.
In Hadrianu2019s words, they wanted to u201cseparate Romans from the barbariansu201d to the north.
,Scholars believe the wall may have also served as a means of restricting immigration and smuggling into and out of Roman territory.
u2019u2019 Source of the quoted paragraphs: Hadrianu2019s WallRoman Empire in its maximum size:
What continent is 40 north and 100 east
Without any Questions it is ASIA.
You can cross check it by your commonsence,By knowing the coordinates of India that is,8u20324N to 37u20326N,68u20327E to 97u203225E.
,According to your coordinates 40N to 100E ,you can compare ,know the continent.
What ocean is 20 south and 120 east
I actually did a bit of research on this topic when I got interested in the idea of undersea colonization.
As an addendum to John Burgesss excellent post, Ill give you an outline of how to go about this: ,Seamounts are ideal sites because many of them are of volcanic origin, meaning that they often have good potential for geothermal power and mineral resources.
However, the sides tend to upwell and steepen from further volcanic activity within them, which can eventually cause a collapse; itd be wise to make sure the sides stay built up as well as the top.
n,nAs an added bonus, they tend to have vibrant coral reef communities.
You could use dive tourism to get funding for your construction, and possibly build bouyant extensions anchored to the sides of the seamount to transfer the coral to so that you can keep getting dive tourism even after youve built over the top of the seamount.
However, you may have some trouble with local fishermen who dont want someone building over a place where fish congregate.
,Id recommend building your island out of Biorock, to reduce the manpower requirements for construction.
Youll certainly need good engineers and close monitoring, but its probably cheaper and safer to set up a wave farm or ocean thermal energy conversion (which youll want for your colony anyone) and accrete rock around metal cores than it is to just dump massive loads of fill onto the seamount and hope most of it stays stable.
n,nIve appended a list of rough locations of seamounts that are under 200 meters deep and which Im fairly sure are outside anyones EEZ: to the end of this post.
Youll probably be able to find more here, here, here, and on Earthref.
Id check in a box between between 20 south, 30 north, 120 east and 170 west.
This is an area thats optimal for ocean thermal energy conversion, which youre likely to want.
n,If youve got a head for programming, you can get a list of all possible locations of available sites as follows.
n,Get a database of bathymetric data off the above-linked site.
Drop everything below 200m deep.
,Note that EEZs arent actually drawn as perfect circles from coasts.
Theyre drawn from a countrys baseline.
You can get baseline data for every country in the world off the UN Law of the Sea website; theyre in Executive Summary pdfs, such as this one for the Cook Islands.
,Collect and collate the baseline coordinate data for all countries that appear to be within close to 200 nautical miles of points in that database.
,Drop all points in the bathymetric database that are within a range of (0, 200) nautical miles from the baselines.
I explain how in steps 5-9.
n,First, interpolate; for each bathymetric point, create two points on the nearest baseline, one with the same latitude and one with the same longitude as the bathymetric point.
,Slope of baseline: m = (latitude1 u2013 latitude2)/(longitude1 u2013 longitude2).
Then just use y u2013 y1 = m(x u2013 x1) twice to solve for each latitude and longitude value.
,Hm, but how do you compute which baseline is closest? I dont know how.
If you dont either, you could just do the above for every single baseline and bathymetric point, and then drop the ones where sum of squares of distances is greater than 200 nautical miles.
This is probably a gross waste of processing power, though.
n,Use the Pythagorean Theorem; distance from baseline is c, latitude distance from baseline is a, longitude distance from baseline is b.
You can get a and b by subtracting the coordinates of the point of interest from the coordinates of the nearest point on the baseline, and using a^2 + b^2 = c^2.
,This gives you your final list of sites outside EEZs.
Search through them for the best location.
Prefer ones with greater potential for ocean thermal energy conversion, flat ground, shallower depth, etc.
,nYou will also need someone familiar with best practices for underwater construction.
Perhaps Ryan Carlyle would be interested.
And if hes not interested, he could at least give a very entertaining explanation of why this would be a bad idea.
,Incomplete available seamount list.
nThat ridge northeast of Madagascar, especially the plateaus b/w Cargados Carajas and Savanne:nAround 29.
9 north by 28.
7 west theres a nice little plateau thats at just about 200 meters deep, so just solidly within the photic zone.
Its roughly 1250 km^2, and there are some nearby peaks (mostly north of it) that look a little deeper but still reasonable.
nTheres a patch at 35.
541 north, 51.
945 west thats only 45m deep.
nChain along 42 south, 1 west has a lot of flat ground, and somes only 20 ft deep; however, may fall w/in EEZ created by Inaccessible IslandnTheres an island at 31.
635 south, 8.
337 east that can workn53.
041 south, 45.
106 east has local depth around 100 meters, several plateaus that look to have comparable depth nearby, so good surface area.
Do some more searching to determine surface areas of nearby plateaus.
488 south, 48.
973 east is 175m deepn5.
92204 north, 104.
5715 west is 168m deep, good size,Band northeast of New Guinea:nGood ones at 11.
165 east and 11.
846 south, 174.
000 east and thereabouts, but might be in Fijian and/or Solomon EEZ.
I think 13.
6151 east just avoids them.
,South of Hawaii but north of that big claimed band:n9.
1483 east works, others nearby along line b/w Palmyra Atoll and Johnston Atoll
What Ocean is found at 20 north and 160 east
Even de-masted ships have made it with some crew still alive from Japan to the coast of Washington state in historic times.
,The so-called u201cThree Kichisu201d did this.
A Japanese ship had left port on the southeast coast of Japan on October 1832, with a crew of 14 and a cargo of rice and porcelain.
It was fifty feet (15 meters) long and carrying about 150 tons of cargo.
It was a type of sailing cargo ship called a sengoku bune.
It was named the Hojun maruSome time after sailing from Ise Bay on November 3, the ship was caught in a storm, was stripped of its rudder, and carried away by the powerful kuroshio, (black current), that sweeps from Japan to the North American coast.
The ship drifted across some 5,000 miles of ocean before finally reaching the Northwest coast with three survivors.
The ship was more than a year going across the Pacific Ocean.
They had rice and caught fish and collected water.
However there was no source of vitamins.
They washed ashore near Cape Flattery on a sometime in January in 1834.
There were three survivors.
Most of their crewmates had died of scurvy.
They were found by a group of Makah Indian seal hunters and enslaved.
The British at Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River, then the headquarters of the Hudsonu2019s Bay Company in the Columbia Department, traded or bargained for them.
,Here is a memorial to them Japanese Retrace Path Of History-Making Castaways, 180 Years LaterAt least 34 Japanese sailors reached the shores of North America or Mexico on disabled ships between 1806 and 1852.
One of the best known cases involved the Tokujo maru, which ran aground near Mexican controlled Santa Barbara, California, in 1813, with three survivors out of a crew of 14.
By the mid-1800s an average of two Japanese derelicts appeared each year along the shipping lanes from California to Hawaii.
At the University of Washington, George Quimby has estimated that between 500 and 1750 CE some 187 junks drifted from Japan to the Americas.
,The Ming Chinese ships that Zheng He used to go to India and Arabia and East Africa could have easily gone to California or Washington.
They just would have had to do the same route that the Spanish Manila Galleons took to the north California coast on trade winds.
These are the same currents and winds that brought disabled ships to the west coast.
The harder part would be getting back to China.
Zheng He or others would have needed to go far to the south to find winds to take them back.
,Here is how the currents work,The Ming era trips by Zheng He were in 1405 to 1433.
The Spanish started doing the Manila trip every year beginning in 1565.
The Spanish ships were smaller.
The technology was not really different.
Food and water is the main problem.
The Spanish ships took this route.
,The Spanish ships looked like this,The Ming ships were bigger than European ships.
One estimate is that they were between 390u2013408 feet long and 160u2013166 feet wide.
The traveled to these places.
It is quite far.
,Here is the Ming ships next to Columbuss ship.
,So, it certainly could have been done.
Most vessels that did it wold have done this by accident and not been able to return.
A expedition heading out would not know how much food and water to bring.
It would not know that to return they would need to sail all the way south to Acapulco or so to head back west.
,For the Spanish, Magellan went west from Mexico in 1521 and made it to the Philippines.
The ship Trinidad in 1521 tried to go east in to Mexico with cloves.
The original crew was 61.
With only 20 left as able crew after 30 died of scurvy and others disabled, jumped ship or killed, he turned back never having found the right winds.
In 1529, u00c1lvaro de Saavedra Ceru00f3n tried sailing east from the Philippines and failed.
In 1543, Bernardo de la Torre failed.
Alonso de Arellano and Andru00e9s de Urdaneta discovered the eastward return route in 1565.
They figured that the trade winds of the Pacific moved in a gyre as the Atlantic winds did.
They had to sail north to the 38th parallel north, off the east coast of Japan and discovered the westeries.
Urdanetas ship the San Pedro hit the coast near Cape Mendocino, California.
He then followed the coast south to Acapulco and arrived on October 8, 1565.
,So, the Spanish figured out a way after 44 years of trying.
The advantage that the Spanish had over the Chinese was knowledge of both Mexico and Indonesia/China/Philippines/Japan areas.
Once the Spanish had crossed east to west it was only a matter of time before they found the west to east route.
However a lot of men died in the process.
For the Chinese, in the 1430s the problem was no one knew there was anything to go to across the Pacific.
The Ming knew about Africa and Arabia and India.
So, it made sense to go there.
It seems unlikely that someone would try to cross the Pacific not knowing what was on the other side.
The only sensible way would have been working along the coast to the northeast until one crossed the Bering Strait and came south down the other side in the west coast of North American.
Ivory and furs would have been the main reason to do this.
This is how and why the Russians did it.
what continent is 40u00b0 north and 20u00b0 east brainly
These animals appear to be rather creepy and many deem them to be dangerous but these animals are not dangerous to humans.
,SpidersCamel SpidersCamel Spiders official name is Solifugae.
They are among very diverse species that inhabit warm, arid habitats.
They live on all continents besides Antarctica and Australia.
They are not actual spiders.
The largest members of the species can grow up to six inches long and they can run up to 10mph.
They are non-venomous but their bite can be painful.
,Goliath BirdeaterThis thing looks like its one of Hagridu2019s friends in Harry Potter.
This lovely is found in northern South America.
The Goliath Birdeater is the most enormous spider in the world.
Despite their name, these spiders do not feast on birds.
Like all tarantulas, their fangs are large enough to break human skin but they only bite when threatened and their venom is relatively harmless.
,Giant African MillipedeThe Giant African Millipede is widespread in East Africa, living mostly in forests.
These creatures will grow up to 13.
2 inches in length and 2.
6 inches in circumference.
They are totally harmless and are popular in the pet trade.
Yuck!,Milk SnakesMilk Snakes are widespread throughout Southeastern Canada and the Eastern United States.
They are large snakes reaching up to 72 inches long.
What makes them, particularly scary-looking is their close similarity to the venomous coral snake.
,Manta RayManta Rays are absolutely huge, reaching as much as 23 feet in width.
They also look like cute, harmless fish.
Manta rays have the largest brains of any fish and are able to recognize themselves in mirrors.
Despite their intimidating appearance, they are actually just filter feeders, consuming large quantities of zooplankton.
,GharialThe Gharial is a critically-endangered member of the crocodile family.
Native to India, the gharial has been declining in numbers due to loss of habitat.
They are huge animals, reaching nearly 20 feet long.
However, their extremely narrow snout, while perfect for snatching fish underwater, would be of little use against a creature as large as a human.
,Basking SharkThe basking shark ranges throughout the North and South Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, North and South Pacific Ocean, the Sea of Japan, off southern Australia, and around New Zealand.
They can also be seen along the coastline of Canada.
,Basking sharks can grow to be 40 feet long and they are the second biggest ocean fish.
They tend to hang out or u2018basku201d in the upper layers of the ocean.
To those that see them, they can evoke quite a fright since their dorsal fin can be seen gliding through the water.
Basking sharks may be ugly but they donu2019t attack humans because they are filter feeders.
They feed off massive quantities of zooplankton.
The coordinates 40 north and 100 east falls in what country
I think the best photos are those that tell the stories.
n nThe answers so far had very few pictures from the Eastern front.
This side of WW2 seems less familiar to many people in the West, and I would like to tell it, as it happened, in photographs.
n nPlease note:n,Some images are disturbing.
nMake sure you can handle it; ,I supplemented photos with facts and statistics that I thought might be interesting.
To avoid bias, I used primarily Western sources, such as British historianu2019s Richard Overy: Russias War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941-1945 nDespite my best efforts, some data might be controversial.
,n1941: Operation u201cBarbarossau201dGerman Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels makes a radio announcement about the war with the USSR (June 22, 1941):n, nPeople in Moscow are listening to the war announcement, stunned (June 22, 1941):n,nThe largest invasion in human history begins.
4 million men supported by 600,000 vehicles and 750,000 horses attacked 3,000 kilometer-long front line.
Photo: German soldiers crossing the USSR border (June 22, 1941):n, nThe German attack was a complete surprise, and initial Soviet losses were catastrophic.
After the first 9 days of war the Luftwaffe destroyed 1,400 Soviet airplanes in the air and 3,200 on the ground (40% of the entire USSR air force), while losing only 330 aircraft.
Photo: Russian I-16 fighters destroyed at the airport near Minsk, Belarus (June, 1941):,, nBy mid-August, the Soviets had lost 3,300 tanks, while the Germans lost 220, an astonishing 15:1 ratio.
Photo: Russian BT-2 tank and its dead crew (July, 1941):n,nBut the most devastating were human losses.
By December of 1941, the USSR had lost 2.
7 million soldiers killed and 3.
3 million captured u2013 its entire pre-war army.
For every German soldier lost, the Soviets lost 20.
Photo: Soviet soldiers surrendering (Belarus, July 1941):n, nThe German tanks were unstoppable.
During the first 7 days of the invasion they penetrated 300 km into the Soviet territory - 1/3 distance to Moscow: n,nBlitzkrieg was going well.
German soldiers were having fun.
Photo: a German soldier posing on a Stalins head:n, nBut eventually the Soviets recovered from the shock, their resistance stiffened and German losses started piling up.
If by August, 1941 the German army had lost only 46,000 men, by December 25% of the German forces were dead or wounded.
A unique photo: A German soldier was photographed exactly at the moment when he was killed:n,nA similar famous Russian photo u201cDeath of a Soldieru201d:n,n,,Battle of MoscowBy November of 1941, Russia was in dire straits.
Hitler declared that the war had been won, and cited the evidence: 2 million Soviet prisoners, 22,000 artillery pieces seized or smashed, 18,000 tanks destroyed, 14,500 aircraft shot down.
The German army was just 10 miles away from Moscow, and the Soviets had only 90,000 men and 150 tanks left to defend it.
The world regarded Moscow surrender as inevitable.
To cheer people up, Stalin gave a military parade.
Photo: These troops went into the battle straight from the Red Square (Moscow, November 7, 1941):n, nDesperate times required desperate measures.
The Russians trained dogs to run under the German tanks in suicide attacks.
Photo: dogs, wrapped in explosives, are walking into the battle (Moscow, 1941): n, nIn December of 1941, the temperature fell to -35 C (-30 Fahrenheit), unusually low even for Russia.
The German army was unprepared, and 130,000 cases of frostbite weakened its front line troops:n, nThanks to Japans decision not to attack the USSR, fresh divisions from Siberia u2013 1 million soldiers and 1,000 tanks - were moved to Moscow, and the Russians counter-attacked: n,nFresh, well-equipped troops pushed the exhausted Germans back by 100-200 km.
This was the first major defeat suffered by the German army in WW2, and the bloodiest battle to date: 1 million soldiers lost their lives in the Battle of Moscow.
Photo: German soldiers surrendering (Moscow, January 1942):n, n,,Siege of LeningradAt the same time, German Army u201cNorthu201d attacked Leningrad, the second-largest USSR city of 3.
3 million people.
By September 19, 1941 the Germans were just 12 miles away, and their artillery began a continuous barrage of the city.
Photo: an artillery shell explodes on a street of Leningrad (September, 1941): n, nLeningrad was heavily defended, and Hitler made a decision to besiege it and starve to death.
The city was encircled and the blockade started on September 25, 1941.
At the time, Leningrad had sufficient food for 20 days; by December u2013 despite reducing rations to the minimum - for 2 days.
Photo: a daily ration in Leningrad during the siege - 125 grams of bread per person.
50% of it was made from saw dust:n,nAs a result, 600,000 - 1,000,000 civilians starved to death.
People ate all dogs, cats, birds and rats in the city.
600 people were punished for cannibalism.
Photo: frozen corpses of starved people on the streets of Leningrad (winter of 1942):n, nThe hunger was especially tough on 400,000 children who got stuck in the blockade.
Photo: a child collapsed and died on the stairs of her home (Leningrad, 1942):n, nMany kids lost their parents to hunger or bombing.
To save them from starvation, many Russian military units adopted the orphans.
Photo: little orphan girl Lucy, adopted by the Baltic Fleet sailors (Leningrad, May 1943):n,nThe only way to bring some food into the city was during the winter when the nearby lake Ladoga froze.
The ice road was called The Road of Life.
It was very dangerous u2013 during just the first week of operation, 40 trucks sunk.
Photo: trucks delivering food to Leningrad through the Road of Life.
Notice how all driver doors are open so that the drivers could jump out if their trucks suddenly fall through the ice:n,nThe Siege of Leningrad lasted 900 days, and cost 2 million lives.
Finally, on January 27, 1944 the blockade was broken.
Photo: very emotional meeting of Leningrad defenders and break-through troops (Leningrad, January 27, 1944):n, n,,PartisansWhen the Germans first came, many people who suffered from communism - especially in the Western Ukraine and Baltic countries - welcomed them.
Photo: Ukrainian women greeting German troops (Ukraine, 1941):n, nAt the beginning of the occupation, many German soldiers played nice.
Photo: a German officer gives chocolate to a Ukrainian child: n,nThe sentiment changed after the German Army was replaced by Einsatzgruppen u2013 SS troops tasked with the implementation of Hitleru2019s occupation policies.
SS started by exterminating the Jews.
A famous photo made by an SS officer in the town of Vinnytsa, Ukraine: u201cThe Last Jew of Vinnytsiau201d (August 25, 1942):n, nNazi viewed Slavic people as sub-humans who should either become slaves or be exterminated, and treated them respectively.
Photo: 18-year old Russian girl tortured and hanged, her left breast cut off (Russia, 1941):n, n5 million young people were seized and moved to Germany to work as slaves at the farms and factories.
Half of them died.
Photo: Soviet youth on the train to Germany (Ukraine, 1942):n,nDuring the occupation, SS troops often made public executions.
Photo: the first public execution on the occupied territories.
The Germans hanged 2 teenagers for helping captured Soviet soldiers (Belarus, November 26, 1941):n,nThe executions were supposed to intimidate the local population, but had the opposite effect: many people joined the armed resistance u2013 u201cpartisansu201d, which eventually became the largest guerrilla movement in history.
Although the exact numbers are not known, estimated 250,000 - 600,000 partisans fought on the occupied Soviet territories.
Photo: a Belorussian partisan family (Belarus, 1942):n,nPartisans became a pain in the Germans back.
In August of 1943, to disrupt German supplies for the Battle of Kursk, 100,000 partisans made a coordinated attack on the German railroads, known as a u201cRails Waru201d.
Photo: partisans dismantling German railways during the operation u201cRails Waru201d (August 1943):n,nThe operation was effective: partisans blew up 230,000 rails and 1,000 trains, reducing German supply capacity by 40%.
Photo: a German train derailed by the partisans (August, 1943): n, n,,1942: Operation u201cCase Blueu201dn nIn 1942, Stalin expected the Germans to continue their attack on Moscow, and concentrated 50% of the Soviet forces in the center.
This was a mistake - Hitler shifted his focus to the oil-rich South.
German operation u201cCase Blueu201d started on June 3, 1942 and initially was a smashing success.
In a few days, German tanks crushed Soviet defenses and moved through virtually undefended grass plains.
Photo: German tank column moves through Kuban steppe (summer, 1942): n n,nThe Russians desperately tried to slow them down.
One of the most famous WW2 photos: u201cCombatu201d (u201cCommander of Battalionu201d).
A young Russian officer rallying soldiers for a counter-attack.
A few seconds after the photo was taken he was killed (July 12, 1942):n,n By August, the Soviet troops were overwhelmed.
Desertions and panicked retreats threatened a disintegration of the Russian defenses.
On July 28 Stalin issued the notorious Order 227, demanding that commanders create u201cblocking detachmentsu201d to prevent any unauthorized withdrawals from the battles.
The order had such a negative effect on the soldiers morale that many commanders disobeyed it, and 3 months later it was dropped.
Photo: NKVD officers setting up a gun machine behind the defensive line (August, 1942): n,n,,Stalingradn nOn July 17, 1942 the German troops reached Stalingrad, a town of 400,000 people on the Volga River, and the bloodiest battle in human history had begun.
Photo: this is how Stalingrad looked a few days before the battle (July, 1942):n, nAnd this is how it looked when it was over, 6 months later (February, 1943):n,nOne of the most iconic photos of Stalingrad u2013 u201cBarmaley Fountainu201d.
The sculpture of the kids dancing around a crocodile is a scene from a Russian fairy tale.
u201cBarmaley Fountainu201d became a symbol of Stalingrad and was featured in many movies, such as u201cEnemy at the Gatesu201d:n,nHundreds of thousands soldiers clashed in the ruins for several months.
The fights were fierce: an average life expectancy of a soldier in Stalingrad was 1 day.
During the defense of Stalingrad, 1 Russian soldier died every 25 seconds.
Photo: aftermath of an attack (Stalingrad, December 1942): n, nOn November 19, 1942 the Russians launched an unexpected counter-offensive - Operation u201cUranusu201d, and in 4 days surrounded the city, blocking 265,000 German soldiers inside.
Attempts to break the blockade failed, and the Germans started suffering from exhaustion, starvation and cold:n,nFinally, on January 31, 1943 Ernst Paulus, the commander of the German army in Stalingrad, capitulated - against Hitlers orders.
A 3-day National Mourning was announced in Germany, and came as a shock to the German public, who believed that the war was almost over.
Photo: Field Marshal Paulus and his chief of staff after their surrender:n, nThe Battle of Stalingrad was the bloodiest battle ever, with 2,000,000 casualties.
For the first time since the invasion, German losses were almost as high as the Russians.
25% of the entire German military strength on the Eastern front was destroyed.
The Battle of Stalingrad marked the point were the Germans lost the strategic initiative for the rest of the war, and in Russia it is considered the turning point of WW2.
Photo: captured German soldiers, Stalingrad, January 1943.
Of the 107,000 captives, only 6,000 returned home, 8 years later:n, n,,1943: Operation u201cCitadelu201d / Battle of KurskTo take revenge for Stalingrad and regain the initiative, Hitler decided to launch a major offensive operation in the summer of 1943 near town of Kursk.
By July, both sides had accumulated large forces.
The Germans brought in 900,000 soldiers, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft and 10,000 guns.
The Red Army deployed 1,300,000 soldiers, 3,400 tanks, 2,900 aircraft and 19,000 guns.
Both sides also brought several new weapons into the battle.
The Germans made a major upgrade to their armored forces: a very powerful tank destroyer u201cFerdinandu201d, and 2 new tanks - u201cTigeru201d and u201cPantheru201d.
Photo: Tiger tank - perhaps the most advanced (but also the most expensive) tank of WW2.
It was a formidable adversary: for every u201cTigeru201d lost, the Russians lost 8 tanks:n, nThe USSR had the answer: SU-152 tank-destroyer.
Armed with an enormous 152 caliber gun, they earned a nick-name u201cAnimal Hunteru201d for their ability to knock out u201cTigersu201d and u201cPanthersu201d in one shot: u2003n, nThe Russians also invented PTABs - anti-tank mini-bombs, 2.
5 kg shaped-charges that could penetrate top armor of any German tank.
Because of their small size, PTABs were used in large quantities to carpet-bomb German tank formations.
They became especially deadly in a combination with IL-2 - an armored ground-attack airplane nick-named a u201cFlying Tanku201d.
It was a unique WW2 aircraft - its entire bottom was made of armor so that it could attack at very low altitudes (as low as 6 meters), and yet survive heavy anti-aircraft gunfire.
Photo: IL-2 attacking ground targets during the Battle of Kursk (August 1943):n,nThe Battle of Kursk became known as the largest tank battle in history.
On July 12, 1943 two massive tank forces, 850 Soviet against 600 German, collided near village of Prokhorovka in an area of just 3 square miles.
Tanks were dueling at point-blank range and often rammed into each other.
The crews of the damaged tanks got out and engaged in a bitter hand-to-hand combat.
The fighting raged for 8 hours and by the end of the day 700 tanks looked like this:n, nBased on their experience at Kursk, the Russians had to substantially upgrade their T-34 tanks to catch up with the Germans.
Photo: Tank commander Lieutenant Smelov discusses the dents and holes in the armor of the u201cTigeru201d tank he destroyed.
Its amazing how many hits the Tiger sustained before finally being knocked out:n,nKursk was the last German major offensive operation on the Eastern Front.
Their offensive capability was broken, and they never regained it:n, n,,1944: Operation u201cBagrationu201d / D-DayOn June 22, 1944, exactly on the third anniversary of German invasion in Russia, the Soviet Army lunched operation u201cBagrationu201d to support the Allied landing in Normandy, which started on June 6.
u201cBagrationu201d became the largest Allied operation of World War II, and the worst German defeat u2013 its entire Army Group u201cCenteru201d was annihilated, opening the road to Berlin.
Photo: a squadron of u201cKatyushau201ds firing rockets at the German positions during operation u201cBagrationu201d.
n, nu201cKatyushau201d was a unique weapon that could in 25 seconds release 325 rockets carrying in total 1.
6 tons of explosives, and annihilate everything within a 200-by-400 meter area.
It was one of the WW2 weapons the Germans feared most.
Photo: German military convoy after a Katusha strike (Belarus, July 1944):n,nFor the first time, the Soviets had achieved air superiority.
A notable contribution to this success was made by the French team Normandie that fought on the Russian side.
For their heroism in the battles over the Neman river, they earned a name Normandie-Neman.
After the war, French pilots received their Yak-3 airplanes as gifts.
Photo: French pilots between sorties, Belarus, August 1944:n,n300,000 German prisoners were taken in the operation.
The Allies did not believe the numbers, and Stalin ordered to march the captive Germans through Moscow.
Photo: German soldiers captured during operation u201cBagrationu201d walking in Moscow.
The Russian crowd mocked: You finally made it to Moscow!.
September, 1944:n,n,,AlliesIn WW2, the USSR was allied with the USA and the UK.
Photo: The first meeting of Allies: Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill (Teheran, November 28, 1943):n, nAn important contribution to the Allies victory was the Lend-Lease program.
Its significance for Russia is often misunderstood.
It was not its size that made the difference u2013 Lend-Lease was 4% of the USSR war production ($11 out of $300 billion).
Rather, it was its composition: Land-Lease provided supplies that the Russians either could not make themselves, or preferred not to, to focus on what they could do best.
For example, Allies supplied 90% of the radios, 100% of radars, 60% of trucks, and 100% of armored personnel carriers.
But most of all, Lend-Lease was appreciated as an act of friendship and support given during the Russias darkest days.
Photo: President Roosevelt signing the Lend-Lease bill (March 11, 1941):n,nMany US products were of higher quality and durability.
For example, after 1942, Katyusha rocket launcher was mounted only on Studebaker trucks.
u201cStudebakeru201d was a reliable and powerful vehicle, and Russian soldiers loved it.
They translated the letters u201cU.
u201d on its side as: u201cUbey Suky Adolfau201d u2010 u201cKill that Sonu2010ofu2010au2010bitch Adolf!u201d.
Photo: Katyusha rocket launcher on a Studebaker truck:n, nTo create a southern delivery route for the Lend-Lease supplies, the UK and the Soviet Union together invaded and occupied Iran - a neglected and little-known part of WW2.
Iran is still waiting for an apology.
Photo: a column of Studebaker trucks in Iran, going to the USSR (1943): n,nOne of the most successful Allied aces, Alexander Pokryshkin (58 confirmed kills), fought on American fighters supplied via Lend-Lease.
Photo: Pokryshkin and his teammates posing in front of his Bell P-39 Airacobra:n,nOn June 6, 1944 (D-Day), the Allies invaded France, opening a long-awaited second front.
Operation Overlord was the largest sea-to-land invasion in history, and perhaps the most logistically complex operation of WW2.
It was also an example of the successful military cooperation among the Allies: to prevent the transfer of German forces from the Eastern to the Western front, the Russians simultaneously launched a major offensive in Belarus (Operation u201cBagrationu201d).
Photo: Allies landing on Omaha beach, Normandy (June 6, 1944):n, nAllies pushed towards each other, and after 11 months of fighting finally met.
The first contact occurred on April 25, 1945 (the Elbe Day) near German town of Riesa, after First Lieutenant Albert Kotzebue, an American soldier, crossed the River Elbe with his reconnaissance platoon.
On the east bank they met a rifle regiment of Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Gardiev, the First Ukrainian Front:n,nThere was a time when the Americans and the Russians were genuinely happy to see each other.
Army Private Byron Shiver of the 273rd Infantry Regiment and Red Army soldier Ivan Numladze (April 25, 1945):n,n,,1945: VictoryThe Germans made their last stand in Berlin: 1 million men, supported by 1,500 tanks, 2,200 aircraft and 9,300 guns defended the German capital.
However, at this point they were overwhelmed: the Russians brought in 3 million men, 3,100 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, and 14,600 guns.
Photo: German civilians watching Russian tanks rolling into Berlin:n,nHitler appealed to all Germans, young and old, to defend Berlin to the last person.
Photo: a German teenager from Volkssturm (a volunteer militia), armed with a Panzerfaust, is waiting for the Russian tanks (Berlin, 1945): n, nThe Battle of Berlin started on April 16, 1945.
The Germans were cornered, and fought for every building.
The Russians used Katyashas and heavy artillery to suppress fire, and most of the city was quickly turned into rubble:n, nThe Russian force was overwhelming, and after 16 days of desperate fighting Berlin fell.
This is probably the most famous WW2 photo in Russia: Victory Banner raised on Reichstag, May 2, 1945:n, nOn May 7, the Germans surrendered to General Eisenhower in France.
Photo: General Jodl signs unconditional capitulation (Reims, May 7, 1945):n, nHowever, the USSR felt left out and objected.
As a result, the Germans had to go through the humiliation again.
Photo: Field Marshal Keitel signs capitulation for the second time in Berlin, May 8 (May 9 Moscow time):n,nNow its official.
The Russian troops were rejoicing everywhere:n,n3 million people gathered around the Red Square in Moscow.
Photo: Muscovites listening to the announcement of the wars end (May 9, 1945):n, nOn June 24, 1945 Moscow held a Victory parade.
Photo: Captured German flags and banners on the Red Square, Moscow:,, nThe soldiers finally came home, to re-unite with their loved ones:n,nWhat they found upon their return was heart-breaking.
Oneu2010third of the Soviet Unions wealth was destroyed.
70,000 villages, 1,700 towns, 32,000 factories, 40,000 miles of railroad track were ruined.
25 million people were homeless.
It took the USSR 15 years to rebuild its western part.
Photo: A woman with her children returned to their home (Belarus, 1944):n, n,,People who made the victory possibleThe USSR lost 8.
5 million soldiers and estimated 14 - 18 million civilians in the war.
The Russian people had to endure unendurable, but refused to give up in the most hopeless circumstances.
WW2 created many heroes in Russia, and yet most of them are unknown in the West.
Lets put faces on some of them.
, nGeorgy Zhukov.
nFather of the Soviet victory - a mastermind behind the largest battles of WW2: Moscow, Stalingrad, Berlin.
to name a few.
Without a doubt, a military genius: he never lost a battle.
But he was also called by his soldiers a u201cButcheru201d, for disregarding casualties and winning at any cost.
nOne of the most brilliant strategic minds of WW2.
Outsmarted Field marshal Manstein in the Battle of Kursk.
Mastermind behind operation u201cBagrationu201d.
n, nMikhail Koshkin.
nThe inventor of the famous T-34 tank.
He named the tank after the year when he first envisioned the concept u2013 1934.
It took him 6 years to design and build it.
Unfortunately, he never saw T-34 in a real battle - during the tank testing in 1940 Koshkin died.
He was only 42 years old, and we can only imagine how much he could have advanced T-34 during the war.
n, nIvan Kozhedub.
nThe best Allied ace: 64 confirmed kills in 350 sorties.
He was flying a Russian-made LA-7 airplane, and had never been shot down.
nThe best Allied sniper: 500 confirmed kills.
Famous Vasily Zaitsev with 242 kills ranked 47 on the list of the best Russian snipers.
n, nDmitry Lavrinenko.
nThe best Allied tank ace.
Operating T-34, he destroyed 52 German tanks in 2.
5 months during the most difficult period of war u2013 fall of 1941.
He never lost a tank battle.
n, nAlexey Maresyev.
nAt the beginning of the war, Alexey was shot down and lost both legs, but was determined to return to the air force.
It was unthinkable and unprecedented.
To convince medical examiners that he could fly, he learned how to dance waltz.
Despite all odds and regulations, he returned to flying and became an ace with 11 confirmed kills.
Photo: Alexey Maresyev, on prostheses, in front of his fighter:n,nWomen.
n400,000 Russian women served in WW2; most of them volunteered.
Photo: female sniper Roza Shanina.
Smart, beautiful and deadly u2013 54 confirmed kills.
She was 19 years old.
nEven children contributed to the victory.
Photo: this 13-year-old Russian kid for 3 years worked 12-hour shifts as a miller at the tank engine manufacturing plant:n,nDogs.
n60,000 dogs served in the Red Army during WW2.
They carried 700,000 wounded solders from the battlefields, detected 4 million mines, and destroyed 300 tanks.
Photo: Djulbars - the most famous WW2 dog in Russia.
During the war, he detected 7,468 mines, and was awarded the medal u201cFor Military Meritu201d, becoming the only dog who received a military reward.
At the end of the war Djulbars was injured and was unable to walk.
To honor his contribution, soldiers carried him in hands through the Red Squire during the Victory Parade in Moscow:n,nSome of these people are still alive.
An old WW2 Russian army veteran has accidentally found his own tank - on which he made it through the entire war - standing in a small Russian town as a monument.
He got so emotional that people were worried his heart wouldnu2019t be able to cope: n,nTo the memory of all Allied soldiers who put their lives on the line for usn,n,
3 what continent is at 20 south and 120 east
The economy of Asia is the fastest growing continental economy and also the largest continental economy in terms of GDP (PPP).
The economy comprises of over 4.
4 billion people living in the 49 nations of the continent.
The wealth of the continent is unequally distributed both within and between the countries of Asia.
Here, we present the 10 wealthiest economies in Asia in terms of GDP per capita.
Bahrain - $22,354Manama, Bahrain.
,Bahrain is an island country in the Middle East that is connected to Saudi Arabia via the King Fahd Causeway.
The country houses a population of 1,234,571 including 666,172 non-nationals.
Bahrain is Asiau2019s third smallest nation.
The country has the fastest growing economy in the Arab world.
The economy of Bahrain is the worldu2019s 12th freest and the freest in the Middle East.
The most important export of the country is processed petroleum.
Aluminum, finance, and construction materials are the other biggest products and services of Bahrain.
Brunei Darussalam - $26,938Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.
,Brunei, a Southeast Asian economy, is the ninth richest country in Asia with a GDP per capita of $26,938.
The country has a stretch of coastline along the South China Sea, and its land borders are with Malaysia.
Bruneiu2019s economy is small but rich and factors like efficient government regulation, welfare measures, and a conducive environment for entrepreneurship boost the growth of Bruneiu2019s economy.
The exports of crude oil and natural gas are the biggest contributors to the GDP of the country.
Brunei is Southeast Asiau2019s third largest oil producer and the worldu2019s fourth largest LNG (liquefied natural gas) producer.
Domestic production is supplemented by overseas investments.
- 27,538Seoul, South Korea.
,South Korea is located in East Asia in the Korean Peninsulau2019s southern part.
The country has a mixed economy, one of the biggest in Asia with a per capita GDP of $27,538.
The developed country is known for its internationally famous brands like Samsung and LG Electronics.
The country has a highly skilled and educated workforce.
The countryu2019s economy is heavily reliant on international trade.
Israel - 37,292Tel Aviv, Israel.
,Israel is the seventh richest Asian country in terms of GDP per capita which is $37,292.
The country has coastlines along the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
,The countryu2019s highly educated workforce and well-developed education system have spurred rapid economic development and a technology boom in the country.
Israel has the 24th most competitive economy in the world.
The country hosts the second highest number of startup companies.
Israel is self-sufficient in food production.
Machinery, cut diamonds, chemicals, apparel, agricultural products, etc.
, are the top export products of Israel.
United Arab Emirates - $37,622The skyline of Dubai, UAE.
,The GDP per capita of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is $37,622.
2 USD, the sixth highest in Asia.
The country is located in Western Asia in the Arabian Peninsulau2019s southeast end.
UAE houses a population of 9.
2 million including 7.
8 million expatriates and 1.
4 million Emiratis.
,The economy of UAE is the second largest among the GCC member countries after Saudi Arabia in terms of GDP.
The country is ranked as the 26th best nation for conducting business.
UAEu2019s economy is the most diversified in the GCC.
However, still the economy is highly reliant on oil revenues and natural and gas and petroleum are the top exports.
Japan - $38,894Shibuya crossing is one of the busiest crossings in the world.
,The East Asian nation of Japan located in the Pacific Ocean is the fifth richest country in Asia with a GDP per capita of $38,894.
,The Japanese economy is highly reliant on the countryu2019s automobile and electronics goods industry.
The country is the 3rd largest automobile manufacturing nation and is also the biggest electronics goods industry in the world.
Japan is one of the most innovative nations in the world and the biggest creditor nation globally.
However, the Japanese economy also faces considerable threats, the biggest being a steeply falling population.
Hong Kong SAR, China - $43,681Hong Kong, a SAR (Special Administrative Region) of China, is an autonomous territory based on the delta of the Pearl River.
Hong Kong occupies an area of 1,104 square km and houses a multiethnic population of around 7.
On the basis of GDP per capita, Hong Kong ranks as the fourth richest Asian nation.
The GDP per capita of Hong Kong is $43,681.
,The economy of Hong Kong is highly dependent on international trade and finance.
Hong Kong is one of the worldu2019s top-rated international financial centers.
The country also has low taxation rates.
The economy of Hong Kong ranks number one in terms of the degree of economic freedom.
Hong Kong has ample reserves of foreign exchange, little public debt, and an efficient legal system.
Hong Kong port is one of the largest in the world in terms of container throughput.
There is an abundant supply of cheap and skilled labor in Hong Kong.
The SAR also earns huge revenue from the tourism sector.
Singapore - $52,960Singapore is the third richest Asian nation with a GDP per capita of $52,960.
The Southeast Asian nation consists of one main island and 62 smaller islets.
,The country has a well-established trade-oriented market economy.
It is one of the least corrupt and most business-friendly economies in the world.
The highly conducive investment scenario in Singapore attracts a large number of global investors.
The country promotes innovation and entrepreneurship.
The countryu2019s port serves as the second busiest port in the world by cargo tonnage.
Qatar - $59,330Doha, the capital of Qatar.
,The West Asian nation of Qatar, located in the Arabian Peninsulau2019s northeastern coast, is the second richest country in Asia with a GDP per capita of $59,330.
The country shares its only land border with Saudi Arabia and has a coastline along the Persian Gulf.
,Qataru2019s economy is based on the export of petroleum and liquefied natural gas.
It accounts for 70% of the countryu2019s government revenue, over 85% of the export earnings, and over 60% of the GDP.
Qatar has an immense reserve of oil that can sustain the economy at the current levels for 23 years.
Long term goals of the country include the diversification of the economy to reduce the dependency on oil, a fast-depleting resource.
Macao SAR, China - $73,187An autonomous region of East Asia, Macau is the worldu2019s most densely populated region.
Macau houses a population of 650,900 within an area of 30.
5 square km.
The economy of Macau is largely tourism-based.
Export-oriented manufacturing of textiles and garments and financial services including banking are the other most profitable economic sectors of Macau.
Over 50% of the countryu2019s GDP is contributed by the tourism, gaming, and hospitality industry.
Macau has well-established and stable trade relations with more than 120 countries and regions of the world.
The tourist arrivals in Macau dramatically increased from 9.
1 million in 2000 to 22 million in 2006.
The gambling industry also attracts a large number of tourists to Macau.
Macau is also considered by many as a tax haven and a free port boosting international trade in the region.