Why is the Statue of Liberty green?

Why is the Statue of Liberty green

Itu2019s u2018skinu2019 is made up of copper.

So it was supposed to be the color of an American Penny.

,However, exposure to the element, the sea, and pollution in New York harbor turned it green.

,Also, there was a mistake and one of the points of her crown inserted into her torch arm.

,Because even in the 1880u2019s, Americans refused to read the instructions.

Statue of liberty media copper

There are actually more than two Statues of Liberty.

My answer is by no means comprehensive, but it is a bit long.

I tried to liven it up with photos below.

Bartholdi, the artist who created the Statue of Liberty, started with small maquettes (study models) to form and refine the design.

Many of these earliest models are kept in Colmar and Paris, France.

There are a few in New York as well.

,A careful observation of the models shows a subtle change over time from a thinly garbed, well-fed woman with a sharply out thrust hip striding at a fast pace to a more moderate, graceful goddess with a relaxed saunter.

The draperies that were thinly draped around the female form in the earliest models evolved over time into a more nuanced, visually fascinating costume of a toga and stola, the regular clothing of Roman goddesses and matrons.

,I am assuming the question is more about the final form that we are most familiar with today, created by Bartholdi himself.

There is the first final model as shown here:,That photo was submitted with Bartholdiu2019s application for a copyright.

Here is that same model in another photo from a slightly different angle:,And here are current photos of that model displayed today at the museum in the base of the Statue of Liberty at Fort Wood:,Then there was the (possibly finest) model that was enhanced and perfected by Bartholdi as his absolutely final design prior to the beginning of the construction.

It was the same size (one meter) but considerably more detailed.

It can be seen in these images:,In the last two photos, that same model can be seen behind Bartholdi in his portrait painting.

It is barely visible in the studio workshop standing by the wrist of the copper right hand holding the torch (very hard to spot, but it is there).

Oddly the model looks like plaster, even though it is in fact made of terra-cotta.

,This next photo shows it being used to create a new mold.

The mold was being made in the early 2000s to create a massive 1/4-scale replica to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Bartholdiu2019s death.

That particular replica now stands in a traffic circle in northern Colmar today.

,The next model of the Statue of Liberty was a nine-foot model in plaster.

It can be seen in this period photo of the workshop of Gaget et Gauthier at 25 Rue de Chazelles in Paris.

,It is standing to the far left of the photo, being looked over by former President Grant (seen in his formal top hat with a bent leg).

,That same plaster model has been preserved to the present day at Musu00e9e des Arts et Mu00e9tiers, as seen as here:,That same nine-foot plaster model was used by Bartholdi to cast a bronze Statue of Liberty that stood for years in the Luxembourg Gardens before being replaced with a modern copy.

The old bronze has since been restored and put on displayed at the Musu00e9e dOrsay:,That same plaster that was used to cast the Luxembourg bronze was recently scanned with a laser to create a perfect 3D model that could be used to create a limited edition bronze series.

,The last model before the full-sized final model (more about that in a moment) is the 1/4 or quarter-sized model.

It was originally made of lathe and plaster, so it could be cut apart to be used for measuring to create the final, full-sized models that became the Statue of Liberty.

,You can see both the full-sized plaster and lathe model of the left hand and sleeved arm and the quarter-sized version it was measured and scaled up from in the above photo.

The next section of the Statue of Liberty would be the shoulders and head, which can be seen to the side of the photo.

,This next photo shows the full-sized plaster and lathe model of the head of the Statue of Liberty:,In the foreground, the terra-cotta four-foot / one meter model of Liberty can be seen too.

Another one meter model, probably created to show the internal support structure can be seen almost next to it.

,The quarter-sized plaster and lathe model was stored outside in the courtyard of the workshop in a tall, narrow shed.

That shed can be seen to the side of Liberty as she was being built in the same courtyard in Paris:,During the construction of Liberty in the early 1880s in Paris, almost every section of the 36-foot, quarter-sized plaster and lathe model was carefully measured and multiplied by four times to arrive at the final full size.

Each section was then replicated in more lumber, plaster and lathe in full size! Then the full sized models were used to fabricate wooden molds.

Those wooden molds were then used to shape thin sheets of copper into the final form that would become Liberty.

,When there was no more need for the full sized plaster models, they were demolished and removed to make room for the next section of Liberty that was to be built.

The only survivors from that stage are a plaster ear at the Statue of Liberty museum, a plaster finger in Colmar and a sheet copper finger at the Musu00e9e des Arts et Mu00e9tiers.

In a sense, Liberty at full size existed first briefly in plaster and wood, before being rendered permanently in copper and iron.

,After Liberty was finished and shipped to New York, the American expatriate community in Paris returned the gesture by having the quarter-sized model cast in bronze.

That bronze was eventually set up at the Pont de Grenelle:,At some point, the bronze was rotated to face west towards her u201cbig sisteru201d in New York:,After that, when the Pont de Grenelle was completely rebuilt, the bronze was given a new pedestal:,She was restored prior to being shipped to Japan for a year of friendship between France and Japan.

,This photo above gives you a better idea of just how big the quarter-scale model actually is!,After the year of display was finished in Tokyo, a new bronze copy was cast as the Japanese had become fond of Liberty.

,What became of the original quarter-scale plaster and lathe model of Liberty? Nobody knows for sure, but the best guess is that using it to create the bronze that stands today on the Ile des Cygnes likely destroyed it.

,But in general, there are far more than just two Statues of Liberty.

This doesnu2019t take into account all the third and fourth generation casts created from the nine-foot model and the four-foot model.

,The nine foot model was a popular catalog item actively sold by Bartholdi to recoup some of his personal capital that heu2019d used to construct Liberty.

The catalog Libertyu2019s were sold in either bronze, or the less expensive iron.

All the bronze Libertyu2019s sold via catalog were melted down for war uses by the Nazis after they invaded France.

Many of the iron Libertyu2019s were lost for various reasons, but there are still a few notable survivors, such as the copy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

,There are also the thousands of Statues of Liberty created independently in the past 130+ years in every media imaginable.

A comprehensive list will likely never be finished, but half the fun is just looking.

,As a whole, the Statue of Liberty, as personally shaped by her creator, Bartholdi existed as four editions, from four feet to 151 feet.

The numbers of each size vary, but there seems to be only one four foot terra cotta as first created by Bartholdi, that was photographed and submitted for copyright.

A copy created by Bartholdi exists at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, but it is remarkably different as it has stars instead of windows in the crown.

A bronze of the same size with the stars exists in a private collection, but its history is uncertain.

,The next four foot model, seen in the various photos above, also was made of terra cotta, but it was copied by Bartholdi himself in his Parisian home studio to raise funds for the construction of Liberty.

He noted that each model was sold for roughly 300 French Francs or 300 Dollars American.

Supposedly there was a limit of 100 models, but very few are known to exist today.

The Smithsonian Museum possessed a badly restored version.

Drexel University has a damaged example.

The best known example is kept at the Bartholdi Museum in Colmar, France.

There might be others in private collections.

A book that was supposed to record the names and serial numbers of the models sold has never been found.

,The nine foot model existed as a plaster and lathe model.

It was used during the construction, then as a model for a mold that was used once for the Luxembourg bronze.

Another mold was created from it later to be used for mass reproduction via catalog.

The mass reproductions in bronze and iron were promoted for civic ornament but some were purchased for private use in gardens.

The total number of these nine foot sisters in bronze and iron are unknown.

Many were lost after WWI and again in WWII.

They were seen around the world in exotic locations like China and Vietnam! Many now exist only as mentions or photos.

,The 36-foot, quarter sized model existed first as a plaster and lathe copy used for measurements during the construction of Liberty.

After its primary purpose was finished, it was destroyed during the process of casting it into a permanent bronze.

Today, the original bronze in Paris and a sister copy in Tokyo are all that remain of it.

,The full-sized sections that existed briefly during the construction of Liberty are all gone beyond a few small fragments preserved in museums.

What is the Statue of Liberty holding

The thing which appears to be a book is not a book its a tablet, also known as a tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law).

,Liberty holds a torch in her right hand and a tablet in her left.

The tablet shows the inscription JULY IV MDCCLXXVIu2014July 4, 1776, the date of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence.

Statue of Liberty original color

SHINY COPPER u2014 Like a newly minted penny!,The Statue of Liberty is made of thin COPPER sheets over an iron or steel frame, and the original copper was a pinkish-gold before natural aging gave it its distinctive pale green patina.

What does the Statue of Liberty represent

Thanks Quora,Thanks Sean Carter for an important a2a, in and around our national immigration debate.

If it isnu2019t legal it flies in the face of what Iu2019m going to say.


What is u201clibertyu201d, and what do immigrants think it is?,Free speech,Right to a trial by oneu2019s peers,Free from tyranny of a King or dictator,Freedom to choose who, if any, god or God you worship,Justice under the law, not under a thugu2019s thumb,Security in your property,One person one vote,A balanced tripartite government, legislative, judicial, and executive,The right to defend yourself, your family, and your property,Property ownership with deeds and titles,People leave their countries, their friends, family and life in another country to experience all of the above and more.

Passing this statue as you enter New York Harbor is amazing.

I had the thrill to do this once as a citizen, of course, and canu2019t fathom how proud an immigrant would feel.

,They would see it thusly

Statue of Liberty facts

Very few people know that originally the statue was to have chains around its wrists as a reference to freedom and the abolition of slavery.

,The problem was that the country was still in tension due to the civil war, so they decided to opt for something less visible but still transmit the same message.

,Thats why the statue is chained by the feet, although it is not seen.

How long did it take to build the Statue of Liberty

I am attaching the information you are asking for, from the Wikipedia portal.

This should cover all of your questions.

Statue of Liberty inside


over the years, the arm has grown weaker, and the structural integrity isnu2019t what it was.

It has been over 60 years since the general public has been allowed to go into the arm/torch.

I remember this being an issue when I was in grade school.