When was the United Nations established
The United Nations was founded in 1945, shortly after the second world war.
,The second world war proved to be a devastating tragedy for all countries involved.
The UN was formed with the purpose that, if further conflict arises between nations, a solution could be debated upon without the need of a war.
It maintains world wide peace and fosters, sometimes tries to forge, relationships between countries.
,It is interesting to note that before the formation of the UN, there was an organisation called League of Nations.
This was formed at the end of WW1 (1919) by the Treaty of Versailles (Peace treaty of WW1).
It had similar goals and objectives but since it could not prevent WW2, it was deemed as a failure.
the declaration of the united nations was signed last january 1, 1942
I think the best photos are those that tell the stories.
n nThe answers so far had very few pictures from the Eastern front.
This side of WW2 seems less familiar to many people in the West, and I would like to tell it, as it happened, in photographs.
n nPlease note:n,Some images are disturbing.
nMake sure you can handle it; ,I supplemented photos with facts and statistics that I thought might be interesting.
To avoid bias, I used primarily Western sources, such as British historianu2019s Richard Overy: Russias War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941-1945 nDespite my best efforts, some data might be controversial.
,n1941: Operation u201cBarbarossau201dGerman Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels makes a radio announcement about the war with the USSR (June 22, 1941):n, nPeople in Moscow are listening to the war announcement, stunned (June 22, 1941):n,nThe largest invasion in human history begins.
4 million men supported by 600,000 vehicles and 750,000 horses attacked 3,000 kilometer-long front line.
Photo: German soldiers crossing the USSR border (June 22, 1941):n, nThe German attack was a complete surprise, and initial Soviet losses were catastrophic.
After the first 9 days of war the Luftwaffe destroyed 1,400 Soviet airplanes in the air and 3,200 on the ground (40% of the entire USSR air force), while losing only 330 aircraft.
Photo: Russian I-16 fighters destroyed at the airport near Minsk, Belarus (June, 1941):,, nBy mid-August, the Soviets had lost 3,300 tanks, while the Germans lost 220, an astonishing 15:1 ratio.
Photo: Russian BT-2 tank and its dead crew (July, 1941):n,nBut the most devastating were human losses.
By December of 1941, the USSR had lost 2.
7 million soldiers killed and 3.
3 million captured u2013 its entire pre-war army.
For every German soldier lost, the Soviets lost 20.
Photo: Soviet soldiers surrendering (Belarus, July 1941):n, nThe German tanks were unstoppable.
During the first 7 days of the invasion they penetrated 300 km into the Soviet territory - 1/3 distance to Moscow: n,nBlitzkrieg was going well.
German soldiers were having fun.
Photo: a German soldier posing on a Stalins head:n, nBut eventually the Soviets recovered from the shock, their resistance stiffened and German losses started piling up.
If by August, 1941 the German army had lost only 46,000 men, by December 25% of the German forces were dead or wounded.
A unique photo: A German soldier was photographed exactly at the moment when he was killed:n,nA similar famous Russian photo u201cDeath of a Soldieru201d:n,n,,Battle of MoscowBy November of 1941, Russia was in dire straits.
Hitler declared that the war had been won, and cited the evidence: 2 million Soviet prisoners, 22,000 artillery pieces seized or smashed, 18,000 tanks destroyed, 14,500 aircraft shot down.
The German army was just 10 miles away from Moscow, and the Soviets had only 90,000 men and 150 tanks left to defend it.
The world regarded Moscow surrender as inevitable.
To cheer people up, Stalin gave a military parade.
Photo: These troops went into the battle straight from the Red Square (Moscow, November 7, 1941):n, nDesperate times required desperate measures.
The Russians trained dogs to run under the German tanks in suicide attacks.
Photo: dogs, wrapped in explosives, are walking into the battle (Moscow, 1941): n, nIn December of 1941, the temperature fell to -35 C (-30 Fahrenheit), unusually low even for Russia.
The German army was unprepared, and 130,000 cases of frostbite weakened its front line troops:n, nThanks to Japans decision not to attack the USSR, fresh divisions from Siberia u2013 1 million soldiers and 1,000 tanks - were moved to Moscow, and the Russians counter-attacked: n,nFresh, well-equipped troops pushed the exhausted Germans back by 100-200 km.
This was the first major defeat suffered by the German army in WW2, and the bloodiest battle to date: 1 million soldiers lost their lives in the Battle of Moscow.
Photo: German soldiers surrendering (Moscow, January 1942):n, n,,Siege of LeningradAt the same time, German Army u201cNorthu201d attacked Leningrad, the second-largest USSR city of 3.
3 million people.
By September 19, 1941 the Germans were just 12 miles away, and their artillery began a continuous barrage of the city.
Photo: an artillery shell explodes on a street of Leningrad (September, 1941): n, nLeningrad was heavily defended, and Hitler made a decision to besiege it and starve to death.
The city was encircled and the blockade started on September 25, 1941.
At the time, Leningrad had sufficient food for 20 days; by December u2013 despite reducing rations to the minimum - for 2 days.
Photo: a daily ration in Leningrad during the siege - 125 grams of bread per person.
50% of it was made from saw dust:n,nAs a result, 600,000 - 1,000,000 civilians starved to death.
People ate all dogs, cats, birds and rats in the city.
600 people were punished for cannibalism.
Photo: frozen corpses of starved people on the streets of Leningrad (winter of 1942):n, nThe hunger was especially tough on 400,000 children who got stuck in the blockade.
Photo: a child collapsed and died on the stairs of her home (Leningrad, 1942):n, nMany kids lost their parents to hunger or bombing.
To save them from starvation, many Russian military units adopted the orphans.
Photo: little orphan girl Lucy, adopted by the Baltic Fleet sailors (Leningrad, May 1943):n,nThe only way to bring some food into the city was during the winter when the nearby lake Ladoga froze.
The ice road was called The Road of Life.
It was very dangerous u2013 during just the first week of operation, 40 trucks sunk.
Photo: trucks delivering food to Leningrad through the Road of Life.
Notice how all driver doors are open so that the drivers could jump out if their trucks suddenly fall through the ice:n,nThe Siege of Leningrad lasted 900 days, and cost 2 million lives.
Finally, on January 27, 1944 the blockade was broken.
Photo: very emotional meeting of Leningrad defenders and break-through troops (Leningrad, January 27, 1944):n, n,,PartisansWhen the Germans first came, many people who suffered from communism - especially in the Western Ukraine and Baltic countries - welcomed them.
Photo: Ukrainian women greeting German troops (Ukraine, 1941):n, nAt the beginning of the occupation, many German soldiers played nice.
Photo: a German officer gives chocolate to a Ukrainian child: n,nThe sentiment changed after the German Army was replaced by Einsatzgruppen u2013 SS troops tasked with the implementation of Hitleru2019s occupation policies.
SS started by exterminating the Jews.
A famous photo made by an SS officer in the town of Vinnytsa, Ukraine: u201cThe Last Jew of Vinnytsiau201d (August 25, 1942):n, nNazi viewed Slavic people as sub-humans who should either become slaves or be exterminated, and treated them respectively.
Photo: 18-year old Russian girl tortured and hanged, her left breast cut off (Russia, 1941):n, n5 million young people were seized and moved to Germany to work as slaves at the farms and factories.
Half of them died.
Photo: Soviet youth on the train to Germany (Ukraine, 1942):n,nDuring the occupation, SS troops often made public executions.
Photo: the first public execution on the occupied territories.
The Germans hanged 2 teenagers for helping captured Soviet soldiers (Belarus, November 26, 1941):n,nThe executions were supposed to intimidate the local population, but had the opposite effect: many people joined the armed resistance u2013 u201cpartisansu201d, which eventually became the largest guerrilla movement in history.
Although the exact numbers are not known, estimated 250,000 - 600,000 partisans fought on the occupied Soviet territories.
Photo: a Belorussian partisan family (Belarus, 1942):n,nPartisans became a pain in the Germans back.
In August of 1943, to disrupt German supplies for the Battle of Kursk, 100,000 partisans made a coordinated attack on the German railroads, known as a u201cRails Waru201d.
Photo: partisans dismantling German railways during the operation u201cRails Waru201d (August 1943):n,nThe operation was effective: partisans blew up 230,000 rails and 1,000 trains, reducing German supply capacity by 40%.
Photo: a German train derailed by the partisans (August, 1943): n, n,,1942: Operation u201cCase Blueu201dn nIn 1942, Stalin expected the Germans to continue their attack on Moscow, and concentrated 50% of the Soviet forces in the center.
This was a mistake - Hitler shifted his focus to the oil-rich South.
German operation u201cCase Blueu201d started on June 3, 1942 and initially was a smashing success.
In a few days, German tanks crushed Soviet defenses and moved through virtually undefended grass plains.
Photo: German tank column moves through Kuban steppe (summer, 1942): n n,nThe Russians desperately tried to slow them down.
One of the most famous WW2 photos: u201cCombatu201d (u201cCommander of Battalionu201d).
A young Russian officer rallying soldiers for a counter-attack.
A few seconds after the photo was taken he was killed (July 12, 1942):n,n By August, the Soviet troops were overwhelmed.
Desertions and panicked retreats threatened a disintegration of the Russian defenses.
On July 28 Stalin issued the notorious Order 227, demanding that commanders create u201cblocking detachmentsu201d to prevent any unauthorized withdrawals from the battles.
The order had such a negative effect on the soldiers morale that many commanders disobeyed it, and 3 months later it was dropped.
Photo: NKVD officers setting up a gun machine behind the defensive line (August, 1942): n,n,,Stalingradn nOn July 17, 1942 the German troops reached Stalingrad, a town of 400,000 people on the Volga River, and the bloodiest battle in human history had begun.
Photo: this is how Stalingrad looked a few days before the battle (July, 1942):n, nAnd this is how it looked when it was over, 6 months later (February, 1943):n,nOne of the most iconic photos of Stalingrad u2013 u201cBarmaley Fountainu201d.
The sculpture of the kids dancing around a crocodile is a scene from a Russian fairy tale.
u201cBarmaley Fountainu201d became a symbol of Stalingrad and was featured in many movies, such as u201cEnemy at the Gatesu201d:n,nHundreds of thousands soldiers clashed in the ruins for several months.
The fights were fierce: an average life expectancy of a soldier in Stalingrad was 1 day.
During the defense of Stalingrad, 1 Russian soldier died every 25 seconds.
Photo: aftermath of an attack (Stalingrad, December 1942): n, nOn November 19, 1942 the Russians launched an unexpected counter-offensive - Operation u201cUranusu201d, and in 4 days surrounded the city, blocking 265,000 German soldiers inside.
Attempts to break the blockade failed, and the Germans started suffering from exhaustion, starvation and cold:n,nFinally, on January 31, 1943 Ernst Paulus, the commander of the German army in Stalingrad, capitulated - against Hitlers orders.
A 3-day National Mourning was announced in Germany, and came as a shock to the German public, who believed that the war was almost over.
Photo: Field Marshal Paulus and his chief of staff after their surrender:n, nThe Battle of Stalingrad was the bloodiest battle ever, with 2,000,000 casualties.
For the first time since the invasion, German losses were almost as high as the Russians.
25% of the entire German military strength on the Eastern front was destroyed.
The Battle of Stalingrad marked the point were the Germans lost the strategic initiative for the rest of the war, and in Russia it is considered the turning point of WW2.
Photo: captured German soldiers, Stalingrad, January 1943.
Of the 107,000 captives, only 6,000 returned home, 8 years later:n, n,,1943: Operation u201cCitadelu201d / Battle of KurskTo take revenge for Stalingrad and regain the initiative, Hitler decided to launch a major offensive operation in the summer of 1943 near town of Kursk.
By July, both sides had accumulated large forces.
The Germans brought in 900,000 soldiers, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft and 10,000 guns.
The Red Army deployed 1,300,000 soldiers, 3,400 tanks, 2,900 aircraft and 19,000 guns.
Both sides also brought several new weapons into the battle.
The Germans made a major upgrade to their armored forces: a very powerful tank destroyer u201cFerdinandu201d, and 2 new tanks - u201cTigeru201d and u201cPantheru201d.
Photo: Tiger tank - perhaps the most advanced (but also the most expensive) tank of WW2.
It was a formidable adversary: for every u201cTigeru201d lost, the Russians lost 8 tanks:n, nThe USSR had the answer: SU-152 tank-destroyer.
Armed with an enormous 152 caliber gun, they earned a nick-name u201cAnimal Hunteru201d for their ability to knock out u201cTigersu201d and u201cPanthersu201d in one shot: u2003n, nThe Russians also invented PTABs - anti-tank mini-bombs, 2.
5 kg shaped-charges that could penetrate top armor of any German tank.
Because of their small size, PTABs were used in large quantities to carpet-bomb German tank formations.
They became especially deadly in a combination with IL-2 - an armored ground-attack airplane nick-named a u201cFlying Tanku201d.
It was a unique WW2 aircraft - its entire bottom was made of armor so that it could attack at very low altitudes (as low as 6 meters), and yet survive heavy anti-aircraft gunfire.
Photo: IL-2 attacking ground targets during the Battle of Kursk (August 1943):n,nThe Battle of Kursk became known as the largest tank battle in history.
On July 12, 1943 two massive tank forces, 850 Soviet against 600 German, collided near village of Prokhorovka in an area of just 3 square miles.
Tanks were dueling at point-blank range and often rammed into each other.
The crews of the damaged tanks got out and engaged in a bitter hand-to-hand combat.
The fighting raged for 8 hours and by the end of the day 700 tanks looked like this:n, nBased on their experience at Kursk, the Russians had to substantially upgrade their T-34 tanks to catch up with the Germans.
Photo: Tank commander Lieutenant Smelov discusses the dents and holes in the armor of the u201cTigeru201d tank he destroyed.
Its amazing how many hits the Tiger sustained before finally being knocked out:n,nKursk was the last German major offensive operation on the Eastern Front.
Their offensive capability was broken, and they never regained it:n, n,,1944: Operation u201cBagrationu201d / D-DayOn June 22, 1944, exactly on the third anniversary of German invasion in Russia, the Soviet Army lunched operation u201cBagrationu201d to support the Allied landing in Normandy, which started on June 6.
u201cBagrationu201d became the largest Allied operation of World War II, and the worst German defeat u2013 its entire Army Group u201cCenteru201d was annihilated, opening the road to Berlin.
Photo: a squadron of u201cKatyushau201ds firing rockets at the German positions during operation u201cBagrationu201d.
n, nu201cKatyushau201d was a unique weapon that could in 25 seconds release 325 rockets carrying in total 1.
6 tons of explosives, and annihilate everything within a 200-by-400 meter area.
It was one of the WW2 weapons the Germans feared most.
Photo: German military convoy after a Katusha strike (Belarus, July 1944):n,nFor the first time, the Soviets had achieved air superiority.
A notable contribution to this success was made by the French team Normandie that fought on the Russian side.
For their heroism in the battles over the Neman river, they earned a name Normandie-Neman.
After the war, French pilots received their Yak-3 airplanes as gifts.
Photo: French pilots between sorties, Belarus, August 1944:n,n300,000 German prisoners were taken in the operation.
The Allies did not believe the numbers, and Stalin ordered to march the captive Germans through Moscow.
Photo: German soldiers captured during operation u201cBagrationu201d walking in Moscow.
The Russian crowd mocked: You finally made it to Moscow!.
September, 1944:n,n,,AlliesIn WW2, the USSR was allied with the USA and the UK.
Photo: The first meeting of Allies: Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill (Teheran, November 28, 1943):n, nAn important contribution to the Allies victory was the Lend-Lease program.
Its significance for Russia is often misunderstood.
It was not its size that made the difference u2013 Lend-Lease was 4% of the USSR war production ($11 out of $300 billion).
Rather, it was its composition: Land-Lease provided supplies that the Russians either could not make themselves, or preferred not to, to focus on what they could do best.
For example, Allies supplied 90% of the radios, 100% of radars, 60% of trucks, and 100% of armored personnel carriers.
But most of all, Lend-Lease was appreciated as an act of friendship and support given during the Russias darkest days.
Photo: President Roosevelt signing the Lend-Lease bill (March 11, 1941):n,nMany US products were of higher quality and durability.
For example, after 1942, Katyusha rocket launcher was mounted only on Studebaker trucks.
u201cStudebakeru201d was a reliable and powerful vehicle, and Russian soldiers loved it.
They translated the letters u201cU.
u201d on its side as: u201cUbey Suky Adolfau201d u2010 u201cKill that Sonu2010ofu2010au2010bitch Adolf!u201d.
Photo: Katyusha rocket launcher on a Studebaker truck:n, nTo create a southern delivery route for the Lend-Lease supplies, the UK and the Soviet Union together invaded and occupied Iran - a neglected and little-known part of WW2.
Iran is still waiting for an apology.
Photo: a column of Studebaker trucks in Iran, going to the USSR (1943): n,nOne of the most successful Allied aces, Alexander Pokryshkin (58 confirmed kills), fought on American fighters supplied via Lend-Lease.
Photo: Pokryshkin and his teammates posing in front of his Bell P-39 Airacobra:n,nOn June 6, 1944 (D-Day), the Allies invaded France, opening a long-awaited second front.
Operation Overlord was the largest sea-to-land invasion in history, and perhaps the most logistically complex operation of WW2.
It was also an example of the successful military cooperation among the Allies: to prevent the transfer of German forces from the Eastern to the Western front, the Russians simultaneously launched a major offensive in Belarus (Operation u201cBagrationu201d).
Photo: Allies landing on Omaha beach, Normandy (June 6, 1944):n, nAllies pushed towards each other, and after 11 months of fighting finally met.
The first contact occurred on April 25, 1945 (the Elbe Day) near German town of Riesa, after First Lieutenant Albert Kotzebue, an American soldier, crossed the River Elbe with his reconnaissance platoon.
On the east bank they met a rifle regiment of Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Gardiev, the First Ukrainian Front:n,nThere was a time when the Americans and the Russians were genuinely happy to see each other.
Army Private Byron Shiver of the 273rd Infantry Regiment and Red Army soldier Ivan Numladze (April 25, 1945):n,n,,1945: VictoryThe Germans made their last stand in Berlin: 1 million men, supported by 1,500 tanks, 2,200 aircraft and 9,300 guns defended the German capital.
However, at this point they were overwhelmed: the Russians brought in 3 million men, 3,100 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, and 14,600 guns.
Photo: German civilians watching Russian tanks rolling into Berlin:n,nHitler appealed to all Germans, young and old, to defend Berlin to the last person.
Photo: a German teenager from Volkssturm (a volunteer militia), armed with a Panzerfaust, is waiting for the Russian tanks (Berlin, 1945): n, nThe Battle of Berlin started on April 16, 1945.
The Germans were cornered, and fought for every building.
The Russians used Katyashas and heavy artillery to suppress fire, and most of the city was quickly turned into rubble:n, nThe Russian force was overwhelming, and after 16 days of desperate fighting Berlin fell.
This is probably the most famous WW2 photo in Russia: Victory Banner raised on Reichstag, May 2, 1945:n, nOn May 7, the Germans surrendered to General Eisenhower in France.
Photo: General Jodl signs unconditional capitulation (Reims, May 7, 1945):n, nHowever, the USSR felt left out and objected.
As a result, the Germans had to go through the humiliation again.
Photo: Field Marshal Keitel signs capitulation for the second time in Berlin, May 8 (May 9 Moscow time):n,nNow its official.
The Russian troops were rejoicing everywhere:n,n3 million people gathered around the Red Square in Moscow.
Photo: Muscovites listening to the announcement of the wars end (May 9, 1945):n, nOn June 24, 1945 Moscow held a Victory parade.
Photo: Captured German flags and banners on the Red Square, Moscow:,, nThe soldiers finally came home, to re-unite with their loved ones:n,nWhat they found upon their return was heart-breaking.
Oneu2010third of the Soviet Unions wealth was destroyed.
70,000 villages, 1,700 towns, 32,000 factories, 40,000 miles of railroad track were ruined.
25 million people were homeless.
It took the USSR 15 years to rebuild its western part.
Photo: A woman with her children returned to their home (Belarus, 1944):n, n,,People who made the victory possibleThe USSR lost 8.
5 million soldiers and estimated 14 - 18 million civilians in the war.
The Russian people had to endure unendurable, but refused to give up in the most hopeless circumstances.
WW2 created many heroes in Russia, and yet most of them are unknown in the West.
Lets put faces on some of them.
, nGeorgy Zhukov.
nFather of the Soviet victory - a mastermind behind the largest battles of WW2: Moscow, Stalingrad, Berlin.
to name a few.
Without a doubt, a military genius: he never lost a battle.
But he was also called by his soldiers a u201cButcheru201d, for disregarding casualties and winning at any cost.
nOne of the most brilliant strategic minds of WW2.
Outsmarted Field marshal Manstein in the Battle of Kursk.
Mastermind behind operation u201cBagrationu201d.
n, nMikhail Koshkin.
nThe inventor of the famous T-34 tank.
He named the tank after the year when he first envisioned the concept u2013 1934.
It took him 6 years to design and build it.
Unfortunately, he never saw T-34 in a real battle - during the tank testing in 1940 Koshkin died.
He was only 42 years old, and we can only imagine how much he could have advanced T-34 during the war.
n, nIvan Kozhedub.
nThe best Allied ace: 64 confirmed kills in 350 sorties.
He was flying a Russian-made LA-7 airplane, and had never been shot down.
nThe best Allied sniper: 500 confirmed kills.
Famous Vasily Zaitsev with 242 kills ranked 47 on the list of the best Russian snipers.
n, nDmitry Lavrinenko.
nThe best Allied tank ace.
Operating T-34, he destroyed 52 German tanks in 2.
5 months during the most difficult period of war u2013 fall of 1941.
He never lost a tank battle.
n, nAlexey Maresyev.
nAt the beginning of the war, Alexey was shot down and lost both legs, but was determined to return to the air force.
It was unthinkable and unprecedented.
To convince medical examiners that he could fly, he learned how to dance waltz.
Despite all odds and regulations, he returned to flying and became an ace with 11 confirmed kills.
Photo: Alexey Maresyev, on prostheses, in front of his fighter:n,nWomen.
n400,000 Russian women served in WW2; most of them volunteered.
Photo: female sniper Roza Shanina.
Smart, beautiful and deadly u2013 54 confirmed kills.
She was 19 years old.
nEven children contributed to the victory.
Photo: this 13-year-old Russian kid for 3 years worked 12-hour shifts as a miller at the tank engine manufacturing plant:n,nDogs.
n60,000 dogs served in the Red Army during WW2.
They carried 700,000 wounded solders from the battlefields, detected 4 million mines, and destroyed 300 tanks.
Photo: Djulbars - the most famous WW2 dog in Russia.
During the war, he detected 7,468 mines, and was awarded the medal u201cFor Military Meritu201d, becoming the only dog who received a military reward.
At the end of the war Djulbars was injured and was unable to walk.
To honor his contribution, soldiers carried him in hands through the Red Squire during the Victory Parade in Moscow:n,nSome of these people are still alive.
An old WW2 Russian army veteran has accidentally found his own tank - on which he made it through the entire war - standing in a small Russian town as a monument.
He got so emotional that people were worried his heart wouldnu2019t be able to cope: n,nTo the memory of all Allied soldiers who put their lives on the line for usn,n,
how many countries are considered to be original members of the un?
I was actually curious about the exact mechanics of whatu2019s keeping India out of a permanent seat in the UN security council.
,So far, mostly what Iu2019ve read on Quora seems to imply that once a countryu2019s economy and military and foreign presence becomes big enough they should automatically be considered for a seat on the UNSC.
Especially since the WW2 powers like Russia are on the decline so it doesnu2019t make sense on them being on the UNSC as perma members anymore.
And that somehow, the US and other major powers should acknowledge the rise of India and make the UN more effective by including India into the UNSC so that the UNSC becomes something like a big power conference to mediate world issues.
,Here is the thing though:,There have been efforts to in the past already to increase the number of permanent countries with veto powers in the UNSC (which is what Iu2019m assuming rising regional powers like India are after).
These efforts are usually also accompanied with efforts to get rid of ECOSOC in the UN.
,But they have failed.
,This is because of the following core reason: The UN charter is EXTREMELY difficult to change.
Itu2019s actually easier to change the US constitution than change the UN charter.
,The only time the UN charter has been changed was in 1964u201365 when the rotating seats on the UNSC were increased from the original 6 seats with 5 permanent vetoes (total 11) to 10 with 5 permanent vetoes (total 15).
,There has never been another change in the UN charter since and you can find out why if you look at the end of the UN charter which lays out how to change the UN charter:,Chapter XVIII: Amendments,Article 108,Amendments to the present Charter shall come into force for all Members of the United Nations when they have been adopted by a vote of two thirds of the members of the General Assembly and ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations, including all the permanent members of the Security Council.
,Article 109,A General Conference of the Members of the United Nations for the purpose of reviewing the present Charter may be held at a date and place to be fixed by a two-thirds vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any nine members of the Security Council.
Each Member of the United Nations shall have one vote in the conference.
,Any alteration of the present Charter recommended by a two-thirds vote of the conference shall take effect when ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations including all the permanent members of the Security Council.
,If such a conference has not been held before the tenth annual session of the General Assembly following the coming into force of the present Charter, the proposal to call such a conference shall be placed on the agenda of that session of the General Assembly, and the conference shall be held if so decided by a majority vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any seven members of the Security Council.
,Source:,These conditions areu2026.
extremely difficult to meet.
,It might be tempting to zero in on the unanimous vote required on the permanent 5 veto and frame this as a u201cChina is blocking Indiau201d.
But the situation is more complex than that.
,The above answer has so far talked about the constitutional change related inertia of the UN charter but as far as operations are concerned like UN aid efforts etc.
the UN is surprisingly pretty effective and has kept up with the times.
,There is a reason for this.
At the moment, if the big 5 veto powers are in alignment, they have considerable powers given to them by Articles 5,6 and 7 of the UN charter.
And they can use these powers to carry out effective UN operations in areas as long as those areas donu2019t fall into vicinity of a strategic sphere of a veto power like Chechnya for e.
So if a UN action is required in Sierra Leone for example, no issues.
The UN is there and working as required.
Yugoslavia? Not so much.
,Now, smaller nations are more reliant and somewhat more dependent on the UN as a platform to meet their concerns and react to crises that affect them, countries like Singapore for e.
,It is important for India to realize that these small countries are as against an expansion of the UNSC permanent veto seats as any rivals they might have on the current veto seats like China for e.
,This is because these smaller countries donu2019t want to increase the permanent veto as that would increase the strategic spheres in which the UN would have to tread carefully in due to it being in the sphere of a permanent veto power.
And since these smaller countries are more dependent on the UN and want the UN as well as the platform it provides, the aid it provides, the operations it provides, they donu2019t want to complicate the veto situation further by adding more seats which would begin to inhibit the UNu2019s operational effectiveness.
A u2018too many cooks spoiling the brothu2019 situation.
,This is why itu2019s important to move a bit away from the prevailing narrative that itu2019s just China blocking India or the British and French not wanting India to retain their influence etc.
,I also disagree with Mr.
Petroffu2019s answer which suggests that itu2019s because India isnu2019t powerful enough yet because it again falls into the trap of thinking that the UN automatically makes you a permanent veto member once you achieve a certain Dragon Ball Z power level.
,Thatu2019s not how it works.
The UN has a constitution of itu2019s own, it has a legal procedure of itu2019s own and you have to get the votes in multiple levels of the UNu2019s voting bodies to get a permanent seat.
Just like you would in a constitutional country.
,And getting these votes is a problem.
Even if all 5 members of the permanent veto withdrew their objections today, there would still be a problem of the 2/3rd votes in the UN general assembly.
,u201cBut Usama, India is a popular country with vast appeal across Africa, Latin America, Middle East and South East Asia.
We can get the 2/3rds votes due to our positive public opinionu201d.
,You definitely can.
Not gonna argue.
But this is one way you could still fail:,The Big 5 say they are creating 3 new permanent seats and have no objection to who gets them as long as the General Assembly is ok with it.
The General Assembly 2/3rd votes is all thatu2019s needed.
,India, Turkey, Brazil, South Africa put in bids.
,Individually, India Brazil South Africa and Turkey easily get the 2/3rd votes.
The problem is this: Pakistan Nepal Sri Lanka Bangladesh and Burma fall in the 1/3rd that oppose Indiau2019s bid but donu2019t have a problem with the other 3.
,Greece, Bulgaria, Hungary, Syria, Iraq, Armenia and a couple of other countries fall in the anti-Turkey bid but donu2019t have a problem with the other 3.
,Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Peru and a bunch of others oppose Brazil but not the other 3.
,And so on.
,All of these blocs realize that in their own subunit they canu2019t block the country whose bid they oppose.
BUT: If they adopt negative voting and combine their votes, they can block all of the bids and keep the UN as is.
,When given the choice between the status quo and getting your opponent on the UNSC a permanent veto, most countries just stick with the status quo.
,So what happens is that Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Sri Lanka, Argentina, Chile, Syria, Iraq, Greece and all these other countries combine their votes and block all candidates from reaching the 2/3rds majority even if means blocking the bids of countries they didnu2019t have any issue with.
They are also joined in their efforts by smaller countries like Singapore, African countries, Latin states, South East Asian countries etc.
that benefit massively from the UN as is and donu2019t want to over complicate itu2019s operations by adding more veto seats.
As that would mean more areas where the UN would have to treat carefully and more powers who could block UN operations and make it harder for the UN to operate.
,This is just a hypothetical scenario but itu2019s here to demonstrate how the problem is a lot more complex than the simplistic explanations of:,China is blocking India,India is a powerful country so by that right alone it should have a permanent seat,And so on.
,Of course, there is one possible way countries like India avoid the hypothetical scenario of being blocked in the General Assembly.
,And that is to promise to make the UNSC more democratic and removing the veto powers, something the smaller nations MIGHT welcome.
,But this would earn the ire of the permanent vetoes and would get blocked by them.
,Sigh, democracy is a helluva thing.
,,At the moment, a good chunk of the smaller countries prefer to keep the P5 as is because they know itu2019s only 5 powers that they have to deal with and most of the time if these powers have objections you can modify the language of the resolution here and there and then it can get past the P5.
,Alternatively, a lot of countries have begun turning to regional bodies like ASEAN, the African Union, the EU, the GCC bloc etc.
as substitutes for the UN in their area as regional integration in terms of economy, security can be more effective than the cumbersome global level body of the UN which is plagued with negative powers.
,Actually, speaking of the African Union they have been very involved in security and peace keeping operations in Africa at this point sometimes in conjunction with the UN and sometimes with the AU alone.
,You can check them out here:,But I hope this answer would help to explain certain core points:,We should really read the UN charter and understand it.
There is a clear procedure for Indiau2019s inclusion into the UN permanent council.
Once we understand what this procedure is, we can then understand what is blocking India from the permanent seat.
,Too much emphasis on the P5 blocking the permanent seat expansion, not enough emphasis on the smaller countries and their reasons for blocking this expansion.
,Too much talk about how once you reach a certain power level, you should by right be in the permanent veto seat whereas the UN has a clear constitution which must be abided by.
It doesnu2019t matter if youu2019re the strongest country on earth, you have to win the voting process.
,And if you canu2019t win the process, there are other options: You can translate your power into regional bodies that are more effective than the UN in maintaining peace, security and economic cooperation in your region.
The way the Chinese are doing with RCEP and AIIB, the Asian tigers did with Asian, the Gulf countries with the GCC and the African states with the African Union.
,Source: Great Powers, Global Trends and International Instruments by Paul Kennedy
The UN Charter was signed on
The UN charter was signed in San Francisco on 26 June 1945 by 50 of the 51 original member states.
The UN headquarters remained in San Francisco until moving to New York in 1951.
Declaration by United Nations
United Nations wasnt in existence until after WW2,The reaction to the United States declaration of war on the Japanese was the Nazis declared war on the USA
Charter of the United Nations
Aims of the United Nations:,According to the United Nations Charter, the UN objectives are:,(1) To maintain international peace and security.
,(2) To develop friendly relations among nations on the basis of equality and the principle of self-determination.
,(3) To foster worldwide cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems.
,(4) To promote human rights and fundamental freedom for the people of the world.
,(5) To serve as a centre where various nations can coordinate their activities towards the attainment of the objectives of the United Nations.
,(6) To save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.
Headquarters of United Nations
Hereu2019s a fun fact:While the grounds are located on US soil (New York City), it doesnu2019t follow US law; its an international zone.
Hypothetically, If the US were to send a SWAT team to breach it, theyu2019d be violating international law.
,The address is: New York, NY 10017, United StatesImageAs we can see here, itu2019s nestled in the bustling scenery of Manhattan, flanked by the Hudson River.
,It was designed by Oscar Niemeyer, Le Corbusier and Wallace Harrison u2014Wallace Harrison led the operation.
,It was built by the architectural firm Harrison & Abramovitz.
Construction began on September 14, 1948, and completed in 1952.
The architectural style follows the modernist international style.
The complex has four main structures: the General Assembly Building, the Conference Building, Secretariat Building and Dag Hammarskju00f6ld Library, as well an Art Collection,General Assembly Building:The General Assembly Building holds the General Assembly Hall, which has a seating capacity of 1,800.
It is the largest room in the complex.
This building holds the United Nations General Assembly, which is one of the six major organs of the United NationsImageConference Building:The Conference Building holds the Security Council Chamber, another major organ of the United Nations.
ImageImageSecretariat Building:It houses offices for:,the Secretary-General;,the Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs and United Nations Legal Counsel;,the Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs and Office of Disarmament Affairs;,the Department for General Assembly and Conference Management (DGACM).
,ImageDag Hammarskju00f6ld Library:Originally called the United Nations Library, the name was changed in honour of former Secretary-General Dag Hammarskju00f6ld, one of the most important statesmen of the 20th century.
,The library holds:,400,000 books;,9,800 newspapers and periodical titles;,80,000 maps;,The Woodrow Wilson Collection containing 8,600 volumes of League of Nations documents;,6,500 related books and pamphlets.
,Image,Some notable art pieces:Non-Violence sculpture (the Knotted gun) u2014 Carl Fredrik Reuterswu00e4rd:,The sculpture has been the symbol of The Non-Violence Project (NVPF), and according to Kofi Annan:,it has enriched the consciousness of humanity with a powerful symbol that encapsulates, in a few simple curves, the greatest prayer of man; that which asks not for victory, but for peaceImageGuernica tapestry u2014 Pablo Picasso:It is regarded by many art critics as one of the most moving and powerful anti-war paintings in history