Is China an advanced economy like Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Brunei & Taiwan? Why is it that in that part of Asia, you get hyper modern developed nations, & others like Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia & Laos?

10 example of small Medium Enterprise in the Philippines

Is China an advanced economy like Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Brunei & Taiwan?,China as a whole country is still internationally classified as a middle-income developing economy.

However, China has more than two hundred advanced industrial and technological fields in the world leading position.

Within Asia, there is probably no other country that can surpass Japan in metallurgical technology.

In terms of airplane engine technology, Japan is also ahead of China.

Whether it is the engine of the fighter jet or the engine of the automobile industry, the engines made in Japan can also be ranked one of the advanced in the world.

However, China has made the high-end diesel engines in the world.

,For example, in 2005, Chinas first diesel engine with completely independent intellectual property rights was born in Weichai (Weichai Power Co.

, Ltd is a developer and manufacturer of diesel engines with headquarters in Weifang, Shandong in the Peoples Republic of China).

On September 16, 2020, the worlds first commercial diesel engine with 50% thermal efficiency developed by the youth science and technology innovation team at Weichai was unveiled.

After testing and certification by authoritative institutions at home and abroad, its thermal efficiency reached 50.

23%, setting a new benchmark for thermal efficiency of diesel engines in the world.

In January 2022, the Weichai team set a new record again, increasing the thermal efficiency of the global diesel engine body to 51.

09% for the first time.

Breaking through the monopoly of electronic control core technology and the high-end hydraulic technology in China, .

.

.

, etc.

In recent years, Weichai has climbed the peak of science and technology again and again and has reaped fruitful results.

,There are gradually fewer and fewer technologies that Japan has surpassed China.

China is far ahead of Japan in some cutting-edge technologies, while Japan is ahead of China in the other areas.

If only the number of cutting-edge technologies was considered, Chinas leading number is beyond and has a continuous advantage.

Japan is the world leader in practical technology because the cutting-edge technology must make strategic decisions and strategic deployments from the national strategy and often involves a wide range of talents, resources, and disciplines.

,Due to the small size of the country, especially the lack of resources, the Japanese industrial system is not very sound.

However, China has a very comprehensive development of a unique 100% complete industrial system in the world.

In the field of nuclear energy, there are other aspects.

For example, in nuclear fusion research, China not only participates in the international joint research and development of nuclear fusion, but also independently develops its cutting-edge artificial sun.

In the field of information technology, China is unique in the world in the field of the Internet.

China has also exploded in the development and application of supercomputing, and made progress in communication technology, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things in the future.

Chinas aerospace, aviation equipment is in full bloom.

China has a clear leading edge in quantum technology and quantum communications and has also made gains in quantum computing.

,In 2017, China succeeded in the South China Sea the trial mining of the combustible ice in the deep-sea area (natural gas hydrate).

China was the first country to build a supercomputer as a developing country.

At present, Chinas smart grid technology is the world leader.

China already completed 2 1000 kV UHV AC and 2 u00b1800 kV UHV DC projects and built 220 smart substations.

Chinas high-end manufacturing field of UHV power transmission is already at the leading level in the world.

China is the only country in the world that has mastered UHV technology, and Chinas UHV technical standards are also the only technical standards in the world.

,Those are just a few typical scientific and technological capacity examples of China.

5G + Industrial Internet is accelerating its integration into thousands of industries, enabling the digital, networked, and intelligent transformation and upgrading of the real economy in China further.

At present, the 5G + Industrial Internet has formed 20 typical application scenarios in ten key industries with more than 1800 projects under construction.

The complementary effects of the two are rapidly emerging, and they are bringing intelligent changes to all walks of life.

,For example, the steel bridge intelligent manufacturing demonstration factory built by China Railway Industry through the Inspur intelligent manufacturing solution is the first to introduce 5G technology intelligent workshop with the top plate unit production line of important components of steel bridges as a pilot, realizing the transformation from extensive factory and innovative production to digital, transparent and networked collaboration.

The product delivery cycle is shortened by 10%, and the overall cost is reduced by 5%.

,5G and the Industrial Internet are important supports for promoting the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries and nurturing and developing advanced manufacturing industries.

At present, there are still a large number of traditional industrial enterprises in China in the stage of digitalization, networking, and intelligent transformation, and the industrial Internet will open up a wider space for 5G applications.

,More and more results will appear in the high-end products gradually.

,Why is it that in that part of Asia, you get hyper modern developed nations, & others like Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia & Laos?,The exceptional economic and technological development achievements are the results of overcoming the problems and contradictions in the operation of the market mechanism, such as unfair competition and profit-seeking, market segmentation monopoly and unbalanced supply and demand, by the effective role of the government function in supervising and regulating the market to avoid unnecessary crises.

,Vietnams economy is still mainly driven by labor-intensive industries such as electronics and textile exports.

China has already begun to transform into a mid-to-high-end manufacturing industry.

It is precisely because of the backward technology and low labor costs of local companies in Vietnam that it has undertaken a part of the transfer of low-end industries from China.

Local companies in Vietnam can only provide some low-end components and have never mastered core technology.

China, on the other hand, has a complete industrial system and industrial chain, as well as an industrial pattern that is spread across academia, research and production, and is fully connected from the back-end to the front-end.

The Chinese industry is adjusting, and there is no need for so many screwdrivers.

In the future, what is needed is senior technicians with knowledge and skills, who are responsible for equipment maintenance, control CNC machine tools, and even hand over modeling to 3D printers to complete production tasks.

However, China still has 60 million low-end industrial workers, and China is far from the point where it does not need low-end industrial workers.

The high-end manufacturing requires not only solid basic research, but also skilled industrial workers.

Isnt this a result of the so-called low-end manufacturing? Japan and Germany also have developed high-end industries such as automobiles, electronics, and new materials on the basis of huge low-end industries.

,Vietnam is in the golden age of demographic dividend.

The labor force accounts for about 70% of the total population.

However, Vietnam is also facing the problem of follow-up development momentum caused by the uneven education level of the labor force.

In order to achieve a higher level of development in Vietnam, it is imperative to improve the quality of human resources.

The industrialization and modernization process of Vietnam is still relatively slow, the economic growth model has not been fundamentally changed, and the economic efficiency, quality, effectiveness and competitiveness are still not high.

Due to the weak infrastructure, incomplete industrial structure and low level of urbanization, Vietnam is just approaching the middle-income threshold.

It will be a severe test whether Vietnam can successfully overcome the middle-income trap in the future.

Vietnams future industrialization and modernization can only be selective industrialization and modernization.

,Now, more than 50% of Samsungs mobile phone exports and 1/3 of its electronic product shipments are produced in Vietnam.

More than 50% of Nikes footwear products and 30% of clothing products are completed in Vietnam factories.

One-third of footwear and one-fifth of apparel in the U.

S.

market are processed and manufactured in Vietnam.

Over the past ten years, Samsung has invested a total of 18 billion US dollars in Vietnam, established more than 200 local suppliers, and employed 110,000 local employees.

The influx of foreign-funded enterprises has made Vietnam a manufacturing kingdom of mobile electronic products.

Vietnam is trying to become a new manufacturing center for the worlds electronics industry.

After crossing the river by feeling China, Vietnam has opened up its markets, privatized reforms, and ruled the country according to law.

Learning from our experience and lessons from the success and failure of reform and opening up, of course, many detours have been avoided.

,The four ASEAN countries, including Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines, have fallen into the middle-income trap because their economic growth declined or stagnated for a long time after moving from low-income to middle-income status.

This is not only due to economic factors such as difficulties in industrial transformation and upgrading and insufficient innovation capabilities, but also social reasons such as the widening gap between the rich and the poor and political turmoil, as well as external factors such as changes in the international economic environment.

,The Philippines is the first developing country in Asia to embark on the road of industrialization.

Before the 1960s, the Philippines was one of the most advanced countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and its economic strength was second only to Japan and stronger than other Asia-Pacific countries.

In 1978, the Philippines entered the ranks of middle-income countries.

However, since the 1980s, the Philippine economy has entered a long-term stagnation, with an average annual growth rate of only 1.

69% from 1980 to 1990, which is not only lower than that of all Southeast Asian countries, but also lower than the average level of middle-income countries.

If the population growth rate of more than 2% is deducted, the per capita output value in the 1980s was actually in a downward channel, and it was the most typical country that fell into the middle-income trap.

Throughout the 1990s, the per capita economic growth of the Philippines was only 2.

94%.

It was not until recent years that with the improvement of China-ASEAN economic and trade relations, the economic growth of the Philippines began to rise.

However, in 2012, the per capita GNI of the Philippines was only US$2,500, still ranking the last among the four ASEAN countries.

,Indonesia is the country with the worst foundation among the four ASEAN countries.

In 1970, Indonesias per capita GNI was only US$80, about 40% of that of Thailand and the Philippines, and 1/5 of that of Malaysia.

After that, Indonesias economy developed rapidly.

Throughout the 1970s, Indonesias economic growth averaged 7.

85%, the highest among the four ASEAN countries.

But in 1980, when Indonesias economy reached the level of a middle-income country, there was a halt in development.

Throughout the 1980s, per capita GNI only rose from US$490 to US$600.

The Southeast Asian financial crisis in 1997 hit Indonesia hard, and in 1998 Indonesia fell into a second crisis, becoming the country most hit by the financial crisis.

In 2000, Indonesias per capita GNI was US$560, only 52% of the peak in 1997.

Indonesia has experienced the longest recovery process among Southeast Asian countries.

Since 2004, the Indonesian economy has recovered and achieved rapid growth.

In 2012, Indonesias per capita GNI reached US$3,420, close to the level of upper-middle-income countries, and it is also a typical country falling into the middle-income trap.

,Malaysia is the fastest developing country among the four ASEAN countries.

In the 1970s, Malaysia followed the Four Asian Tigers and rapidly implemented industrialization and entered the stage of economic take-off.

In 1973, Malaysias per capita GNI reached US$480, making it a middle-income country.

Since the 1980s, Malaysia has been affected by the global economic recession, and its economy has experienced great ups and downs.

The per capita GNI in US dollars only rose from US$1,820 in 1980 to US$2,370 in 1990.

Since the 1990s, Malaysia has attracted a large amount of surplus capital from Japan to invest and build factories in the country, bringing new impetus to economic development.

However, the Southeast Asian financial crisis hit Malaysias economy hard, and it wasnt until 2004 that the Malaysian economy recovered to its 1997 level.

However, in recent years, Malaysias economy has ushered in development again, and it is expected to break through the bottleneck around 2015 and reach the level of high-income countries.

Although Malaysias development speed is not very slow, compared with South Koreas 20-year transition from a low-income country to a high-income country, the gap is still very large.

In general, from 1980 to the beginning of the 21st century, Malaysia basically conformed to the characteristics of a middle-income trap country.

,Compared with Malaysia, Thailand developed relatively late.

By 1978, Thailands per capita GNI reached US$520, making it a middle-income country.

Since the late 1970s, Thailand has rapidly integrated into the wave of global financial liberalization and economic integration, and the economy has entered a stage of rapid development.

up 241%.

After the outbreak of the Southeast Asian financial crisis, as the birthplace, Thailandu2019s economy was hit hard.

The per capita GNI dropped rapidly from US$2,940 in 1996 (close to the threshold for upper-middle-income countries) to US$2,040 in 1998.

severe recession.

There was no recovery until 2004.

In 2011, Thailands per capita GNI just surpassed the upper-middle-income level, but it has been widened by China, and it is unclear whether it can get out of the middle-income trap.

,The listed above four ASEAN countries having still lingered in the middle-income trap since the 1980s have some common features.

Industrial transformation and upgrading is the biggest driving force to overcome the middle-income trap.

Countries such as Japan and South Korea have achieved rapid growth of strategic industries through active industrial policies.

For example, South Korea first took advantage of its abundant domestic labor resources to enter the international market for products such as textiles, garments, rubber and plastic products.

Then, South Korea took the opportunity of international industrial transfer to focus on the development of heavy chemical industries such as chemical industry, iron and steel, and machinery manufacturing, and extend to shipbuilding, automobile and other industries.

In recent years, through its own technological innovation, it has entered the computer Internet, optoelectronics industry, bioengineering and other industries.

The whole process reflects the clear path of labor-intensive industry to capital-intensive industry to technology-intensive industry to knowledge-intensive industry.

,For example, the economic development in Malaysia inevitably drove up labor costs, and the comparative advantage of labor-intensive industries would gradually disappear.

Malaysia has been considering the implementation of industrial upgrading since the early 1980s.

Currently, its heavy chemical industry and electronic industry have a certain scale.

The heavy chemical industry in Malaysia is mainly owned by the government.

Due to the fierce competition in the international market, the products are mainly sold domestically.

However, Malaysia itself has a small population and a limited domestic market, resulting in low economic benefits and poor scale effects in the heavy chemical industry.

Most of Malaysias electronics industry is controlled by foreign and joint venture companies.

Foreign multinational companies have established their production networks around the world, set up factories in Malaysia according to the principle of comparative advantage, and divided labor within products.

Subsidiaries in Malaysia assemble imported electronic components and export finished and semi-finished products abroad.

Such enterprise models have simple process links, low production profits, and limited technology spillover effects.

As a country with the best industrial structure and the most promising industrial upgrading among the four ASEAN countries, Malaysia is still a long way from achieving a full-scale developed industrialized country.

,For ASEAN countries, it is still an urgent issue to choose which industry to choose which is in line with the reality of their own country and can also drive the transformation and development of the economy.

,The most important reason for the difficulty of industrial upgrading in the four ASEAN countries is the lack of technological innovation.

In the process of economic development, the industrial structure of ASEAN countries has been improved to a certain extent, and the technological level has also improved to varying degrees.

However, the technological progress of these countries is highly dependent on the introduction of technology by multinational companies, and their own investment in research and development is quite insufficient.

Without the input of human and material resources, the four countries cannot rely on technological innovation to build an industrial system suitable for their own countries.

The establishment of a technological innovation system requires a solid foundation, including complete supporting industries and infrastructure, etc.

, but human resources are the most important.

,In terms of the quality of human resources, the four ASEAN countries attach great importance to investment in education.

In 2010, Indonesias public education expenditure accounted for 4.

6% of GDP, Thailand and the Philippines were 3.

8% and 2.

7%, and Malaysia was even as high as 5.

8%.

However, the high-quality educated people in these countries have not been well integrated with industrial development, and the decoupling of production and education is serious.

On the one hand, college students in the four countries prefer to choose liberal arts, while science and engineering are not valued.

Science and engineering students and skilled workers are thus chronically undersupplied.

On the other hand, there is a massive loss of high-quality talent.

The vast majority of immigrants are skilled workers and professionals with tertiary education.

,The four ASEAN countries themselves have seriously insufficient investment in technological progress, and mainly rely on technology transfer from foreign capital investors.

This kind of technological structure is very unfavorable to the four countries.

When the foreign-funded industries are transferred to the outside again one day, the industrial structure of the four countries will probably regress.

,The wealthiest classes in Malaysia hold the main wealth of the country, while the masses of society possess very little of the social wealth.

In 2009, the per capita income of the richest 15% reached US$36,784, while the per capita income of 85% of the general public was only US$1,623, a difference of 22.

7 times between the two groups.

Although Malaysias per capita GNI has exceeded US$8,000, in 2009 2.

3% of Malaysians lived below the US$2 per day poverty line, 3.

8% of the population lived below the national poverty line, and 8.

2% of the rural population lived below the rural poverty line.

,In the process of Indonesias economic growth, the income distribution also tends to deteriorate, and the gap between the rich and the poor continues to widen.

The proportion of the bottom 10% of Indonesias income in national income dropped from 4.

07% in 1987 to 3.

67% in 2006, and the proportion of the bottom 20% in national income dropped from 9.

36% in 1987 to 8.

34% in 2006.

However, the proportion of the top 20% of the national income increased from 38.

79% in 1987 to 42.

76% in 2006.

,The proportion of the bottom 10% of the Philippinesu2019 income in the national income decreased from 2.

83% in 1988 to 2.

59% in 2009, while the proportion of the top 10% in the national income increased from 32.

05% in 1988 to 33.

62% in 2006.

The Philippines is more backward than the other three countries, so poverty has always been the biggest social problem in the Philippines.

In 1997, 27.

3 million people in the Philippines still lived below the national poverty line, accounting for about 37.

5% of the population.

Among them, 51.

2% of the population living below the poverty line in rural areas and 22.

5% in cities.

It can be seen that the poverty situation in rural Philippines is much more serious than the national average.

,The reality of the four ASEAN countries shows that the imbalance of income distribution leads to the slow growth of expenditure of low-income groups with a high marginal propensity to consume, which makes the effective social consumption demand insufficient, which is not conducive to the balance and development of the economy.

After the high-income class in these countries increased their income, the funds were not mainly used to invest in expanding reproduction, but blindly pursue luxury consumption or become speculative capital.

The income inequality problem is not just an economic problem.

The unequal income distribution makes the poor have serious dissatisfaction with the rich.

The venting of this emotion will worsen social security and even bring about political turmoil, thereby destroying the investment environment and economic development in the region.

,In the stage of rapid economic development, the four ASEAN countries failed to establish an income distribution mechanism for shared development, which widened the gap between the rich and the poor, and the middle class was small and immature.

This has caused pre-existing religious, ethnic, and class conflicts to continue to ferment, eventually leading to political turmoil, which in turn hinders economic development and social transformation.

,The political turmoil in Thailand in recent years has forced the normal operation of the Thai government to stagnate, seriously hindering economic development.

Long-term political turmoil has caused huge trauma to Thailands economy.

From 2006 to 2011, Thailands GDP grew by only 3.

0% per annum, well below the 5.

1% average of the other three countries.

Political instability in Thailand is related to a democratic politics that lacks the rule of law.

Although Thailand has already achieved the election of leaders, people do not have a deep understanding and understanding of democratic politics, and the law and law enforcement have not received enough attention.

In order to achieve their own goals, politicians and the masses fail to abide by the rules set by the law for democracy, thus endangering the social order and causing serious losses to the country and public interests.

However, the government and the courts have never given due punishment to serious unconstitutional and illegal acts, and the law has become a vain display.

,The Philippines is the most recognized democracy in Southeast Asia.

Every general election always exposes various scandals, such as bribery, cheating, violence (98 people died in the conflict in the election of 2000 alone), etc.

The political turmoil has caused panic among the Filipino society and people, and everyone is in danger.

The economy, especially the tourism industry, has been severely hit.

The phenomenon of corruption in the Philippines is very serious.

The corruption of government and local officials and private institutions has been deeply rooted and even penetrated into the judiciary and the media.

The fundamental reason for the turbulent political situation and rampant corruption in the Philippines is that the governments ability to govern is very limited.

There are many laws against and controlling corruption in the Philippines, but these rules are basically not implemented.

,The outbreak of the Southeast Asian financial crisis at the end of the 20th century triggered severe social unrest in Indonesia and led to a political crisis that eventually ended Suhartos 32-year rule.

Political turmoil represented by the Chinese Exclusion Incident has made Indonesia the country most affected by the financial crisis.

Indonesia is one of the most corrupt countries in the world.

Neither the Suharto government, known for its authoritarian rule, nor the Megawati government, which is in a period of democratization, can effectively control and manage domestic corruption.

The lack of an effective supervision mechanism is the basic reason for the proliferation of corruption in Indonesia.

In the Suharto era, the military had controlled Indonesias politics for a long time, above the law, and lacked judicial supervision.

In the post-Suharto era, local power has been expanded but lacks the ability to govern, which leads to the fact that the supervision mechanism is still ineffective.

,The failure of the economic structural reform and industrial transformation of the four ASEAN countries is also closely related to the international economic environment in which they are located.

After the Korean War broke out, the United States provided military assistance and large-scale procurement to Southeast Asia, laying a solid foundation for the recovery and reconstruction of these countries after World War II.

Since the 1960s, the world economy has entered a rising period of more than 20 years, and international trade has continued to grow.

Driven by the economic growth of the United States and Europe, the worlds demand for primary products continues to grow, enabling the smooth implementation of the export-oriented development strategies of ASEAN countries.

After the 1980s, due to the signing of the Plaza Accord, the yen, the Korean won and the Taiwan dollar appreciated sharply, resulting in a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan transferring their export industrial production bases overseas, forming a regional group in the Asia-Pacific region.

The upsurge of capital investment has promoted the rapid economic development of the four ASEAN countries.

,Due to the solvency problems of some countries, the impact of international hot money and the immature market system, the financial crisis first broke out in Thailand in July 1997, and soon spread to the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, South Korea and the other regions.

The crisis caused violent turbulence in the foreign exchange and stock markets of various countries, which in turn led to the bankruptcy of a large number of financial institutions and enterprises, and finally turned into a severe economic recession, forcing countries to re-explore their development paths.

,After Chinas accession to the WTO, not only Japan, but in fact the worlds low-end manufacturing and high-tech manufacturing links have flocked to China.

,In 2007, the subprime mortgage crisis broke out in the United States and spread to the world.

In 2009, the European debt crisis broke out and is still fermenting.

The economic aggregate of the United States and the European Union accounts for 47% of the worlds total.

The two major economies have fallen into recession at the same time, which has a huge impact on the worlds economy.

Whats more serious is that the crisis has not only yet seen the dawn of an end but is even likely to continue to spread and deepen.

This crisis is the biggest economic crisis since the Great Depression in the United States in the 20th century.

It has reversed the long-term prosperity of the world economy since the 1990s and caused a great impact on ASEAN countries in terms of exports, investment, financial stability and other aspects.

,The four ASEAN countries cannot, like Japan and South Korea, rapidly develop their national economies and enter the ranks of developed countries when the domestic and foreign situations are more favorable (the two countries spent 15 and 18 years respectively).

When the unfavorable international economic environment comes, it will be more difficult for the four ASEAN countries to overcome the middle-income trap.

,First, industrial transformation and upgrading is the fundamental way to overcome the middle-income trap.

,Secondly, the establishment of an income distribution mechanism for shared development is an urgent problem that needs to be solved at present.

,Thirdly, the ability of the government to govern is an effective guarantee for crossing the middle income trap.

,Finally, all the people have to correctly recognize the situation and formulate and adjust development strategies in a timely manner.

,In the five-year period (2012-2016), Cambodia had made remarkable achievements in various fields of economy and society and been promoted from a low-income country defined by the World Bank to a low-middle-income country.

Cambodia has seen rapid growth in all major fields.

In terms of infrastructure construction, the annual mileage of new roads exceeded 10,000 kilometers.

In terms of social development, 600 new schools were built in 2016, and the number of registered mobile phone users exceeded 30% of the total population.

In terms of industrial revitalization, 286 new mining licenses had been issued in five years, more than 1,000 garment and shoe factories had been registered, and the national tax has doubled.

Despite its achievements, Cambodia remains one of the poorest countries in Asia.

,Cambodia is one of the most US dollarized countries in the world.

With the rapid development of Cambodias economy, the problem of excessive dollarization has become prominent.

First, the Cambodian government lost a lot of seigniorage and could not get the benefits of issuing currency.

Second, the benefits of using the U.

S.

dollar for trade settlement are gradually declining.

,Due to the limited investment scale, single industrial structure and relatively lack of labor skills, Cambodias economic growth rate will face downward pressure in the future.

The current decline in the poverty rate is mainly driven by the rapid increase in the output value of the agricultural sector and the rapid development of the garment industry in the past few years, but it cannot be ignored that about 30% of Cambodias population lives near the poverty line (income less than US$2.

3 per day).

,The construction of Cambodias transportation infrastructure is completely unable to meet the needs of economic development, and infrastructure such as roads, ports, and aviation have all shown a worsening trend in the past few years.

At present, Cambodias infrastructure has become a major constraint on local economic development.

The poor infrastructure not only hinders the further development of agriculture and tourism, but also makes Cambodia difficult on the road of industrialization.

,Among ASEAN countries, Cambodias economic development level is relatively backward, and the development gap with other countries is relatively large.

The Cambodian government is implementing the 2015-2025 Industrial Development Plan to transform Cambodias industry from labor-intensive to technology-intensive in 2025.

Types of SMEs

Technical SMEsFirst in our categories of SMEs is the technical SME.

This group is primarily focused on technical content and isnu2019t overly involved or concerned about other aspects of the instructional design process such as implementation.

Technical SMEs are brought into the process to provide content knowledge and to make sure that every detail related to content is correct.

These SMEs often work in groups, and the larger the scale of a project, the more of these experts you can expect to be involved.

,Hybrid SMEsThis unique category of SME embodies someone who is both a content expert and an implementation expert.

These SMEs are expected to provide support both in the content of a course or program and in the best ways to deliver it.

This, of course, assumes substantial documented expertise in both areas.

,Instructional SMEsThe roles of facilitator, mentor, coach, and teacher are all included in the instructional subject matter expert category.

While this group may possess some degree of subject matter expertise, its primary role is to enhance the instructional aspects of the training during implementation.

It is likely that someone who does not participate in the design, development, or management of the training will teach a technical course.

Having this groupu2019s input about the best way to implement the content is often valuable.

,Functional SMEsWithin your design team, you often have experts in areas who are not content or implementation related, but are nonetheless vital to your project.

This might include programmers, software designers, photographers, artists, writers, and a wealth of other non-content expertise.

In most cases, we donu2019t consider these valuable assets as SMEs, but they are in every way subject matter experts in their professions.

To treat them in the same manner as our content experts will almost always work to the design teamu2019s advantage.