Scientists consider glycolysis to be one of the earliest biochemical processes to evolve in the first living cell. What are the evidences that support this?

Fermentation heat of reaction

Some theorists have proposed that the earliest living things used reactions that resemble those modern organisms use to ferment sugar, glycolysis.

Yeast use a version of that reaction to get energy by turning glucose into alcohol.

This makes sense because there wasnu2019t much oxygen in the early Earth and glycolysis doesnu2019t require oxygen.

Some or maybe all of the chemical reactions involved can happen without biological enzymes.

Heating a mixture of water, sugar, and minerals may be enough.

But there might not have been enough sugar in the primordial soup to make this an important source of energy.

,Some scientists have tried to reconstruct the biochemical reactions the earliest organisms used by looking at chemical reactions that are widely used in modern organisms and making guesses about the environment in which early organisms might have lived.

,Hereu2019s one reconstruction.

In this scenario, a set of reactions called the Woodu2013Ljungdahl pathway use hydrogen as an electron donor and carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.

Hydrogen, CO2, and H2S could have provided the nutrients and some of the energy needed to power life.

This model assumes that life arose at an undersea hydrothermal vent having an alkaline interior and surrounded by mildly acid water.

That difference could have provided energy to make ATP You can learn more from these publications:The physiology and habitat of the last universal common ancestor.





pdfThe last universal common ancestor between ancient Earth chemistry and the onset of genetics

Enthalpy change fermentation of glucose to ethanol

NEET Syllabus 2020PHYSICSClass XI SyllabusUNIT I: Physical World and Measurementu2022 Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.

,u2022 Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units.

Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.

,u2022 Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

,UNIT II: Kinematicsu2022 Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and velocity.

Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity.

Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

,u2022 Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.

,Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors.

Relative velocity.

,u2022 Unit vectors.

Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.

,u2022 Scalar and Vector products of Vectors.

Motion in a plane.

Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion.

Uniform circular motion.

,UNIT III: Laws of Motionu2022 Intuitive concept of force.

Inertia, Newtonu2019s first law of motion; momentum and,Newtonu2019s second law of motion; impulse; Newtonu2019s third law of motion.

Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

,u2022 Equilibrium of concurrent forces.

Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.

,u2022 Dynamics of uniform circular motion.

Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

,UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Poweru2022 Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.

,u2022 Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

,UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Bodyu2022 Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and center of mass motion.

Centre of mass of a rigid body; center of mass of uniform rod.

,u2022 Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.

,u2022 Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration.

Values of M.


for simple geometrical objects (no derivation).

,Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

,UNIT VI: Gravitationu2022 Kepleru2019s laws of planetary motion.

The universal law of gravitation.

,Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.

,u2022 Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential.

Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite.

Geostationary satellites.

,UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matteru2022 Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship.

Hookeu2019s law, Youngu2019s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, Poissonu2019s ratio; elastic energy.

,u2022 Viscosity, Stokesu2019 law, terminal velocity, Reynoldu2019s number, streamline and turbulent flow.

Critical velocity, Bernoulliu2019s theorem and its applications.

,u2022 Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

,u2022 Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases.

Anomalous expansion.

Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state u2013 latent heat.

,u2022 Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation.

,Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Weinu2019s displacement law, and Green House effect.

,u2022 Newtonu2019s law of cooling and Stefanu2019s law.

,UNIT VIII: Thermodynamicsu2022 Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics).

Heat, work and internal energy.

First law of thermodynamics.

Isothermal and adiabatic processes.

,u2022 Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes.

Heat engines and refrigerators.

,UNIT IX: Behavior of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theoryu2022 Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.

,u2022 Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure.

Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.

,UNIT X: Oscillations and Wavesu2022 Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time.

Periodic functions.

Simple harmonic motion (SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM u2013Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

,u2022 Wave motion.

Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion.

Displacement relation for a progressive wave.

Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics.


Doppler Effect.

,Class XII SyllabusUNIT I: Electrostaticsu2022 Electric charges and their conservation.

Coulombu2019s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

,u2022 Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.

,u2022 Electric flux, statement of Gaussu2019s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside),u2022 Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.

,u2022 Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.

Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graff generator.

,UNIT II: Current Electricityu2022 Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohmu2019s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.

,u2022 Carbon resistors, color code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

,u2022 Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.

,u2022 Kirchhoffu2019s laws and simple applications.

Wheatstone bridge, Metre Bridge.

,u2022 Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

,UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetismu2022 Concept of magnetic field, Oerstedu2019s experiment.

Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

,u2022 Ampereu2019s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids.

Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields.


,u2022 Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field.

Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere.

Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

,u2022 Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment.

Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.

Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis.

Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earthu2019s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

,u2022 Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.

,u2022 Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths.

Permanent magnets.

,UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents,Details:-,u2022 Electromagnetic induction; Faradayu2019s law, induced emf and current; Lenzu2019s Law,,Eddy currents.

Self and mutual inductance.

,u2022 Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.

,u2022 AC generator and transformer.

,UNIT V: Electromagnetic Wavesu2022 Need for displacement current.

,u2022 Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only).

,Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

,u2022 Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet,,X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

,UNIT VI: Opticsu2022 Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula.

Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-makeru2019s formula.

Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror.

Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

,u2022 Scattering of light- blue color of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.

,u2022 Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.

,u2022 Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

,u2022 Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygensu2019 Principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.

,u2022 Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygensu2019 Principle.

,u2022 Interference, Youngu2019s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.

,u2022 Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.

,u2022 Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes.

Polarization, plane polarized light; Brewsteru2019s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.

,UNIT VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiationu2022 Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenardu2019s observations; Einsteinu2019s photoelectric equation- particle nature of light.

,u2022 Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation.

Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

,UNIT VIII: Atoms and Nucleiu2022 Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherfordu2019s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.

,u2022 Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law.

Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

,UNIT IX: Electronic Devicesu2022 Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.

Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator.

Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

Transistor as a switch.

,CHEMISTRYClass XI SyllabusUNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistryu2022 General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.

,u2022 Laws of chemical combination, Daltonu2019s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.

,u2022 Atomic and molecular masses.

Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

,UNIT II: Structure of Atomu2022 Atomic number, isotopes and isobars.

Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglieu2019s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hundu2019s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.

,UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Propertiesu2022 Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, and electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.

,UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structureu2022 Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only).

Hydrogen bond.

,UNIT V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquidsu2022 Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyleu2019s law, Charlesu2019 law, Gay Lussacu2019s law, Avogadrou2019s law, ideal behavior of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation.

Avogadro number, ideal gas equation.

,Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behavior, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.

,u2022 Liquid State- Vapor pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

,UNIT VI: Thermodynamicsu2022 First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hessu2019s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.

,u2022 Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.

,u2022 Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.

,UNIT VII: Equilibriumu2022 Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelieru2019s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH.

, Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea).

, buffer solutions,,Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

,UNIT VIII: Redox Reactionsu2022 Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.

,UNIT IX: Hydrogenu2022 Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;,UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)u2022 Group 1 and group 2 elements:,u2022 General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.

,u2022 Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:,u2022 Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.

,u2022 Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.

,UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elementsu2022 General Introduction to p-Block Elements.

,u2022 Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides.

Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalis.

,u2022 General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behavior of first element.

Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.

,u2022 Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.

,UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniquesu2022 General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.

,u2022 Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.

,u2022 Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

,UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbonsu2022 Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.

,u2022 Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, and methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikovu2019s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.

,u2022 Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

,u2022 Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution-,Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craftu2019s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

,UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistryu2022 Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.

,Class XII SyllabusUNIT I: Solid Stateu2022 Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

,UNIT II: Solutionsu2022 Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoultu2019s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass.

Van Hoff factor.

,UNIT III: Electrochemistryu2022 Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrauschu2019s Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.

,UNIT IV: Chemical Kineticsu2022 Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).

Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.

,UNIT V: Surface Chemistryu2022 Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: nzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.

,UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elementsu2022 Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

,UNIT VII: p- Block Elementsu2022 Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

,u2022 Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone.

Sulphur u2013 allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

,u2022 Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

,u2022 Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

,UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elementsu2022 General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, color, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation.

Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

,u2022 Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

,u2022 Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

,UNIT IX: Coordination Compoundsu2022 Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werneru2019s theory VBT, CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).

,UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenesu2022 Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C u2013X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.

Optical rotation.

,u2022 Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).

,u2022 Uses and environment effects of u2013 dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

,UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethersu2022 Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.

,u2022 Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

,u2022 Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.

,UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acidsu2022 Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.

,u2022 Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

,UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogenu2022 Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.

,u2022 Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.

,u2022 Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

,UNIT XIV: Biomoleculesu2022 Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.


configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.

,u2022 Proteins- Elementary idea of u2013 amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.

,u2022 Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).

,u2022 Vitamins- Classification and function.

,u2022 Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA,UNIT XV: Polymersu2022 Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization.

Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

,UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Lifeu2022 Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

,u2022 Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.

,u2022 Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

,BIOLOGYClass XI SyllabusUNIT I: Diversity in Living Worldu2022 What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy u2013 Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.

,u2022 Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.

,u2022 Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).

,u2022 Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).

,UNIT II: Structural Organization in Animals and Plantsu2022 Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).

,u2022 Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach).

(Brief account only),UNIT III: Cell Structure and Functionu2022 Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra-structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

,u2022 Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.

,u2022 B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

,UNIT IV: Plant Physiologyu2022 Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant u2013 water relations u2013 Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water u2013 Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).

,u2022 Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

,u2022 Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non-cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.

,u2022 Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

,u2022 Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

,UNIT IV: Human Physiologyu2022 Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders u2013 PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.

,u2022 Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.

,u2022 Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system- Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.

,u2022 Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uremia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.

,u2022 Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, flagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.

,u2022 Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.

,u2022 Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.


Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addisonu2019s disease).

(Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.

),Class XII SyllabusUNIT I: Reproductionu2022 Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction u2013 Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

,u2022 Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

,u2022 Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilization, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

,u2022 Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies u2013 IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

,UNIT II: Genetics and Evolutionu2022 Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Hemophilia, Color blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Downu2019s syndrome, Turneru2019s and Klinefelteru2019s syndromes.

,u2022 Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.

,u2022 Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwinu2019s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinbergu2019s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

,UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfareu2022 Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis.

Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

,u2022 Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Bio-fortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

,u2022 Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and bio-fertilizers.

,UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applicationsu2022 Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

,u2022 Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues Biopiracy and patents.

,UNIT V: Ecology and environmentu2022 Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

,u2022 Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

,u2022 Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

,u2022 Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

u2206 fh

In my opinion, the answer provided by Tom Woggle would hold true in maybe two decades prior to this one.

I have successfully completed my Master of Science in Mechatronics from FH Aachen.

So yes, the FH provides master degree courses and students from FH, although only few, go ahead and pursue Ph.

D as well.

,Yes there is a difference in both the universities in terms of the nature of courses and the education but there is nothing like people who join the FH are the ones who failed at RWTH.

Also it is not true that if you graduate from FH, then your chances of getting accepted at TUs or other universities are difficult.